Iran saffron, Iran pistachio

Iran pistachio saffron

Iran almond raisin dates fruit

various kinds of Iran pistachio is available for exporting.
Iranian saffron is very famous, also we are supplier and exporter of Iran almond, raisin, apricot, pistachio.
Iran pistachio and Saffron is the best gift for passengers to Iran.

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Fruits
Almond
Almond - with Shell: Iranian almonds are oval and flattened in shape and a little over an 2.5 CM long. They are rough, light brown, and have scattered small holes on the shell. A distinct spine separates the two halves of the almond shell.
Almond - without Shell: The meat of the almond is darker brown in color than the shell. The inside flesh is white. Vertical ridges run along both sides of the nut.
Which City or Province Grow: Tehran + Oroumeiyeh + Tabriz. Harvest Season: Summer. The almond is botanically a stone fruit related to the cherry, the plum, and the peach. Almonds are mentioned as far back in history as the Bible. They were a prized ingredient in breads served to Egypt's pharos. Their exact ancestry in unknown, but almonds are thought to have originated in China and Central Asia.
Explorers ate almonds while traveling the "Silk Road" between Asia and the Mediterranean. Before long, almond trees flourished in the Mediterranean, especially in Spain and Italy. The almond tree was brought to California from Spain in the mid-1700's by the Franciscan Padres. The moist, cool weather of the coastal missions, however, did not provide optimum growing conditions. It wasn't until the following century that trees were successfully planted inland.
By the 1870's, research and cross-breeding had developed several of today's prominent almond varieties. By the turn of the 20th century, the almond industry was firmly established in the Sacramento and San Joaquin areas of California's great Central Valley. Throughout history, almonds have maintained religious, ethnic and social significance.
The Bible's "Book of Numbers" tells the story of Aaron's rod that blossomed and bore almonds, giving the almond the symbolism of divine approval.

The Romans showered newlyweds with almonds as a fertility charm. Today, Americans give guests at weddings a bag of sugared almonds, representing children, happiness, romance, good health and fortune. In Sweden, cinnamon-flavored rice pudding with an almond hidden inside is a Christmas custom. Find it, and good fortune is yours for a year. The earliest varieties of almonds were found in China carried by traders down the ancient Silk Road to Greece, Turkey, and the Middle East. Nestled between the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Pacific Coast Ranges is California's fertile Central Valley, home to one of the oldest and most beautiful flowering fruit trees.
Unlike other flowering fruit trees that bear edible fruit, this tree's "pearl" is the delicious nut found inside the fruit, the almond.
The almond is one of the most versatile nuts in the world. We eat many varieties in many diverse forms. Almonds are delicious alone as a nutritious snack, and they are a prime ingredient in home kitchens and in food manufacturing. Almonds enhance virtually every food they grace with their distinctive taste and satisfying crunch.California is the only place in North America where almonds are grown commercially.
In the past 30 years, California's almond yield has quadrupled.More than 450,000 acres in the lush San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys are under almond cultivation, stretching 400 miles between Bakersfield and Red Bluff, California. Almonds are California's largest tree nut crop in total dollar value and acreage. They rank as the seventh largest U.S. food export. Approximately 6,000 almond growers produce 100 percent of the commercial domestic supply and more than 70 percent of worldwide production. Over 90 nations import California almonds. Overseas, Germany is the largest market for almonds, consuming about 25 percent of the export crop, followed by Japan at about 12 percent. Other major importers include the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, India and Spain. The Pacific Rim nations are a rapidly growing market for California almonds. Raw Almond Recalls
The Food and Drug Administration is advising distributors, wholesalers and consumers that a recall of raw almonds due to reports of Salmonella Intrepidities that was announced by Paramount Farms, Lost Hills, CA, on 5/18/04 has expanded.
Before eating any raw almonds having a "best before" date of 8/21/04 or later, consumers are advised to check with the store where they purchased the product to see if the almonds came from Paramount Farms.
FDA has learned that Paramount Farms distributed the recalled almonds in bulk or packaged nationwide to brokers, distributors and grocery store chains which in turn sold the almonds to consumers in a variety of package sizes with a variety brand names. The almonds were also distributed to Mexico, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, France, England and Italy.
Individuals who have purchased the recalled raw almonds should not consume them but instead return them to the place of purchase for a full refund.Origin and history??????????
Unripe almond on tree
The wild form of domesticated almond grows in the Mediterranean region in parts of the Levant. Almonds must first have been taken into cultivation in this region. Before cultivation and domestication occurred, wild almonds were harvested as food and doubtless were processed,by,leaching,or,roasting to remove their toxicity. Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age of the Near East, or possibly a little earlier.
A well-known rchaeological example of almond is the fruits found in Tutankhamen’s tomb in Egypt probably imported from the Levant. Production:Global production of almonds is around 1.5 million tones, with a low of 1 million tones in 1995 and a peak of 1.85 million tones in 2002 according to Food and Agriculture Organization figures. Major producers include Iran, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Syria, and Turkey. In Spain, numerous commercial cultivars of sweet almond are produced, most notably the Jordan almond and the Valencia almond.In the United States, production is concentrated in California, with almonds being California's sixth leading agricultural product and its top agricultural export. California exported almonds valued at 1.08 billion dollars in 2003, about 70% of total California almond crop. Flowering branch of an almond tree???????? Sweet and Bitter Almonds.There are two forms of the plant, one producing sweet almonds, and the other producing bitter almonds. The kernel of the former contains a fixed oil and emulsion.
As late as the early 20th century the oil was used internally in medicine, with the stipulation that it must not be adulterated with that of the bitter almond; it remains fairly popular in alternative medicine, particularly as a carrier oil in aromatherapy, but has fallen out of prescription among doctors. The bitter almond is rather broader and shorter than the sweet almond, and contains about 50% of the fixed oil which also occurs in sweet almonds.It also contains the enzyme emulsion which, in the presence of water, acts on a soluble glycoside, amygdaline, yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds or benzaldehyde. Bitter almonds may yield from 6 to 8% of prussic acid .Extract of bitter almond was once used medicinally but even in small doses effects are severe and in larger doses can be deadly; the prussic acid must be removed before consumption.The nut of the tree has also been used as a preventative for alcohol intoxication. Folklore claims that almonds are poisonous for foxes.

Almond Oil
"Ileum Amygdalate", the fixed oil, is prepared from either variety of almonds and is a glycerol oblate, with a slight odor and a nutty taste. It is almost insoluble in alcohol but readily soluble in chloroform or ether. It may be used as a substitute for olive oil.
General Information on Pure Almond Oil
It is an excellent emollient (softening and soothing to the skin) and also helps the skin to balance water loss and absorption of moisture. It is further a great moisturizer, suitable for all skin types, helps relieve irritation, inflammation and itching, and is greatly lubricating.Because the oil does not penetrate the skin overly quickly, it is a good massage medium to use to help spread the oil and essential oil mixture, while still allowing you time to do a good massage before it is absorbed by the skin. Not only does almond oil help protect the surface of the skin, but it has great value, acting as an emollient, skin soother and softener, while conditioning the skin and promoting a clear young looking complexion. It also helps to relieve muscular aches and pains.
Almond oil is suitable for all skin types, but is especially good for dry or irritated skin. Almond syrup Historically, almond syrup was an emulsion of sweet and bitter almonds usually made with barley syrup or in syrup of orange-flower water and sugar. Grocer's Encyclopedia notes that "Ten parts of sweet almonds are generally employed to three parts of bitter almonds", however due to the cyanide found in bitter almonds, modern syrups generally consist of only sweet almonds. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.Culinary usesSmoked and salted almonds. While the almond is most often eaten on its own, raw or toasted, it is used in some dishes. It, along with other nuts, is often sprinkled over desserts, particularly sundaes and other ice cream based dishes. It is also used in making baklava and nougat. There is also almond butter, a spread similar to peanut butter, popular with peanut allergy sufferers and for its less salty taste. The sweet almond itself contains practically no carbohydrates and may therefore be made into flour for cakes and biscuits for low carbohydrate diets or for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus or any other form of glycosuria. A standard serving of almond flour, 1 cup, contains 20 grammas of carbohydrates, of which 10 g is dietary fiber, for a net of 10 g of carbohydrate per cup. This makes almond flour very desirable for use in cake and bread recipes by people on carbohydrate-restricted diets. Almonds can be processed into a milk substitute simply called almond milk; the nut's soft texture, mild flavor, and light coloring make for an efficient analog to dairy, and a soy-free choice, for lactose intolerant persons, vegans, and so on.Raw, blanched, and lightly toasted almonds all work well for different production techniques, some of which are very similar to that of soymilk and some of which actually use no heat, resulting in "raw milk”.
Sweet almonds are used in marzipan, nougat, and macaroons, as well as other desserts. Almonds are a rich source of Vitamin E, containing 24 mg per 100 g. They are also rich in monounsaturated fat, one of the two "good" fats responsible for lowering LDL cholesterol. The Marconi variety of almond, which is shorter, rounder, sweeter, and more delicate in texture than other varieties, originated in Spain and is becoming popular in North America and other parts of the world. Marconi almonds are traditionally served after being lightly fried in oil, and are also used by Spanish chefs to prepare a dessert called terror.In China, almonds are used in a popular dessert when they are mixed with milk and then served hot. In Indian cuisine, almonds are the base ingredient for posada-style urries. Cultural aspectsThe almond is highly revered in some cultures.

The tree grows in Syria and Israel, and is referred to in the Bible under the name of "Calqued", meaning "hasten", or the literal Hebrew meaning "Awakening One", an appropriate name since the Almond tree is one of the first trees to flower at the close of winter, around late January/early February in Israel. According to tradition, the rod of Aaron bore sweet almonds on one side and bitter on the other; if the Israelites followed the Lord, the sweet almonds would be ripe and edible, but if they were to forsake the path of the Lord, the bitter almonds would redominate.The almond blossom supplied a model for the menorah which stood in the Holy Temple, "Three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, were on one branch, with a knob and a flower; and three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, were on the other...on the candlestick itself were four cups, shaped like almond blossoms, with its knobs and flowers" . Similarly, Christian symbolism often uses almond branches as a symbol of the Virgin Birth of Jesus; paintings often include almonds encircling the baby Jesus and as a symbol of Mary.The word "Luz", which occurs in Genesis 30:37, and which some translations have as "hazel", are supposed to be another name for the almond.In India, consumption of almonds is considered to be good for the brain, while the Chinese consider it a symbol of enduring sadness and female beauty. Possible Health Benefits
Edgar Cayce, a man regarded as the father of American holistic medicine, also highly favored the almond. In his readings, Cayce often recommended that almonds be included in the diet. Claimed health benefits include improved complexion, improved movement of food through the colon and the prevention of cancer. Recent research associates inclusion of almonds in the diet with elevating the blood levels of Hells and of lowering the levels of Ladles. In many Asian cultures almonds are thought to help one's memory, though there currently is no clinical study to reject or support this claim.
Etymology
The word 'almond' comes from Old French allemande or allemande, Late Latin mandolin, derived through a form amygdule from the Greek amygdale, an almond. The al- for a- may be due to a confusion with the Arabic article al, the word having first dropped the a- as in the Italian form mandolin; the British pronunciation Armand and the modern Catalan lamella and modern French amended show the true form of the word.
Smoky Almonds
Smokey Almonds
2 1/2 Cups raw almonds
1/2 tsp. hickory smoked salt
2 Tbsp. tamari or soy sauce
1/2 tsp. brown sugar or honey
Preheat oven to 300 degrees F. Toast almonds on a large baking sheet for about 25 minutes. Stir salt and sweetener into liquid (either tamari or soy sauce) until dissolved. Toss almonds with mixture in a large bowl. Let almonds soak for 2 or 3 minutes. Return almonds to baking sheet and crisp in oven for 5 minutes.
Almond Cake
1 1/3 cups granulated sugar
3/4 cup almond paste (not marzipan)
10 ounces unsalted butter, at room temperature
6 large eggs, at room temperature
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 cup all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
1. Preheat the oven to 325 degrees and position the rack to the center of the oven. Line the bottom of a 9-inch cake pan with a round of parchment paper, or butter the pan and dust it lightly with flour, tapping out any excess. 2. with an electric mixer beat together the sugar and almond paste until the paste is finely broken up (the sugar crystals helps break the paste into pieces-so don't add the butter yet!) 3. Now add the butter and beat for a few minutes until light and fluffy. In a separate bowl, or a measuring cup with a spout, stir together the eggs with a fork then dribble it into the batter as you beat. Add the vanilla. 4. Mix together the flour, baking powder and salt with a whisk. Stir the dry ingredients into the batter until just incorporated. 5. Transfer the batter into the prepared cake pan and bake for about 1 hour, or until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean. The baking time may take a but longer due to the variation in different brands of almond paste.
Cool the cake on a rack before serving. This cake is extremely moist and will keep well for up to a week if well-wrapped.
Iran Almond, pistachio, saffron
Apple
Iranian apples have a rounded shape with a depression at the top where the stem is attached. Some apples are almost perfectly round, while others are more rounded at the top and narrower at the bottom. In addition, some have knobby lobes at the calyx end (bottom) of the fruit. Apple fruits are firm and the skin is shiny and smooth. The color of the skin can be red, green, yellow, or a combination of those colors. The flesh is white, red or ivory.
Which City or Province Grow: Shemiran + Mashad + Oroumeiyeh
Harvest Season: Summer + Winter
Apple Tree: Apple trees can range in size from 0.6 to 3 mete in height, depending on the variety and type of rootstock (dwarf, semi-dwarf, etc.).
Apple Leaves: Apple trees have simple leaves that are arranged alternately along the stem. The leaves are bright to dark green in color and the margins of the leaf are toothed.
The underside of most apple leaves are silver in color and fuzzy
Iran Apple, pistachio, saffron
Apricot
Apricot: Iranian apricots are nearly round with a depression at the top where the stem attached. They have a vertical indentatiThe center of diversity of the apricot is northeastern China near the Russian border . From there it spread west throughout central Asia. Cultivation in China dates back 3000 years.
The Romans introduced apricots to Europe in 70-60 BC through Greece and Italy. Apricots probably moved to the US through English settlers on the East Coast, and Spanish Missionaries in California. For much of their history of cultivation, apricots were grown from seedlings, and few improved cultivars existed until the nineteenth century. Cultivars vary among countries, and in Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Syria, a great deal of the production is from seedling orchards.
Apricot plant :Apricots are small to medium sized trees with Spreading canopies. They are generally kept under 12' in cultivation, but capable of reaching 45 ft in their native range . The one-year-old wood and spurs are thin, twiggy, and shorter lived than those of other stone fruits. Leaves are elliptic to cordite, with acute to acuminate tips, about 3" wide; wider than leaves of other stone fruits. Leaves have serrate margins and long, red-purple petioles.
Apricot flower
Flowers are similar in morphology to peach, plum, and cherry. White flowers are borne solitary in leaf axils of 1-yr wood, or in leaf axils on short spurs and appear to be in clusters. There are 5 sepals and petals, many erect stamens, all of which emanate from the hypanthiums or floral cup. Ovary position is epigenous.


The center of diversity of the apricot is northeastern China near the Russian border. From there it spread west throughout central Asia. Cultivation in China dates back 3000 years.
The Romans introduced apricots to Europe in 70-60 BC through Greece and Italy. Apricots probably moved to the US through English settlers on the East Coast, and Spanish Missionaries in California. For much of their history of cultivation, apricots were grown from seedlings, and few improved cultivars existed until the nineteenth century. Cultivars vary among countries, and in Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Syria, a great deal of the production is from seedling orchards.
Apricot plant :Apricots are small to medium sized trees with Spreading canopies. They are generally kept under 12' in cultivation, but capable of reaching 45 ft in their native range . The one-year-old wood and spurs are thin, twiggy, and shorter lived than those of other stone fruits. Leaves are elliptic to cordite, with acute to acuminate tips, about 3" wide; wider than leaves of other stone fruits. Leaves have serrate margins and long, red-purple petioles.
Apricot flower
Flowers are similar in morphology to peach, plum, and cherry. White flowers are borne solitary in leaf axils of 1-yr wood, or in leaf axils on short spurs and appear to be in clusters. There are 5 sepals and petals, many erect stamens, all of which emanate from the hypanthiums or floral cup. Ovary position is epigenous.
Apricot cultivation
The apricot is thought to have originated in northeastern China near the Russian border. In Armenia it was known from ancient times. The Roman General Lucille’s (106-57 B.C.) even exported some trees, - cherry, white heart cherry and apricot from Armenia to Europe. While English settlers brought the apricot to the English colonies in the New World, most of modern American production of apricots comes from the seedlings carried to the west coast by Spanish mission arise. Most U.S. production is in California with some in Oregon and Utah. Turkey is one of the leading dried-apricot producers. In Armenia apricot is grown in Ararat Valley .The Apricot is slightly more cold-hardy than the peach, tolerating winter temperaturesascoldas-30°C-or-lowerif,healthy. The limiting factor in apricot culture is spring frosts :
They tend to flower very early, before the vernal equinox even in northern locations like the Great Lakes region, meaning spring frost of ten kills the flowers . The trees do need some winter cold to bear and grow properly and do well in Mediterranean climate locations since spring frosts are less severe here but there is some cool winter weather to allow a proper dormancy.
The dry climate of these areas is best for good fruit production. Hybridization with the closely related Prunes Siberia (Siberian Apricot; hardy to -50°C but with less palatable fruit) offers ,options ,for, breeding ,more ,cold-tolerant ,plants . Apricot cultivars are most often grafted on plum or peach rootstocks. A cutting of an existing apricot plant provides the fruit characteristics ,such as flavor, size, etc., but the rootstock, provides ,the, growth ,characteristics ,of ,the plant.
Many apricots are also cultivated in Australia, particularly South Australia where they are commonly grown in the region known as the River land and in a small town called Mycology in the Lower Murray region of the state.
In states other than South Australia apricots are still grown, particularly in Tasmania and western Victoria and southwest New South Wales, but they are less common than in South Australia.
Apricots are also cultivated in Egypt and are among the common fruits well known there. The season in which apricot is present in the market in Egypt is very short.
There is even an Egyptian proverb that says "Fell mishmash" (English "in the apricot") which is used to refer to something that will not happen because the apricot disappears from the market in Egypt so shortly after it has appeared. Egyptians usually dry apricot and sweeten it then use it to make a drink called "ajar el den". Seeds of the apricot grown in central Asia and around the Mediterranean are so sweet that they may be substituted for almonds. Oil pressed from these cultivars has been used as cooking oil. Powder zed seeds can also be added to pastry dough to give a distinct flavor.
Apricot Fruit
A drupe, about 1.5"-2.5" wide, with a prominent suture, yellow to orange ± red blush, having light pubescent or a nearly glabrous surface. The pit is generally smooth, enclosing a single seed.Flesh color is mostly orange, but a few white-fleshed cultivars exist. Trees are fairly precocious, and begin fruiting in their second year, but substantial bearing does not begin until 3-5 years. Fruit is borne mostly on short spurs on mature, less vigorous trees, but can also occur on long lateral shoots of vigorous trees. Fruit require 3-6 months for development, depending on cultivar, but the main harvest season is May 1 - July 15 in California. Apricots are thinned by hand, leaving 1 fruit per 3-5" of shoot length.
GENERAL CULTURE
Soils and Climate
Deep, fertile, well-drained soils
Mild, Mediterranean climates
Frost sensitive
Propagation
T- or chip-budded onto rootstocks
Rootstocks
Apricot seedlings are most common worldwide; 'Blenheim' in California, 'Camino' in France, 'Hungarian Best' in Hungary. Peach seedling rootstocks 'GF 305,' 'Lovell,' and 'Rearguard' are used as well.
Maturity
Apricots for fresh consumption are picked firm-mature; firmness is a reliable indicator, as for plums. Days from full bloom is a fairly reliable index given the relatively invariable growing conditions in Iran.
Harvest Method
Apricots for fresh consumption or processing are picked by hand and carefully handled. Trees are usually picked over 2-3 times each, when fruit are firm.
Trunk shaking can be used for processed fruit, although apricots are said to be more susceptible to trunk damage than other stone fruits.
Post harvest Handling
Fresh apricots are shipped in shallow containers to prevent crushing/bruising. Dried apricots are harvested later than those for shipping, and exposed to SO2 to avoid post-harvest diseases. The drying ratio is 5.5:1 (lbs fresh fruit: lb dry fruit). Drying is either natural, in the sun, or in large dehydrators as with prunes. Canned apricots are immersed in syrup, at a ratio of 0.7 lbs fresh = 1 lb canned.
Storage
Apricots have an extremely short shelf-life of only 1-2 weeks at 0° C and 90% relative humidity. They are susceptible to all post-harvest diseases to which other stone fruits are susceptible.
Contribution to diet
Most of crop is not sold fresh; drying and canning are popular options for apricots since they are so perishable. Cultivars which retain their color and flavor during drying like ‘Royal' and ‘Tilton' are best for this market. Dried apricots can be easily re-hydrated, and are particularly popular with backpackers. As with plums, drying concentrates all nutrients several-fold. Per capita consumption is only 0.9 lb per year. In 2004, the utilization was as follows:
Canned and juices - 23%
Fresh - 13%
Dried - 57%
Frozen - 5%
Dietary value, per 100 gram edible portion calories
Apricot
Water (%) 85
Calories 51
Protein (%) 1.0
Fat (%) 0.2
Carbohydrates (%) 11-13
Crude Fiber (%) 2-3
% of US RDA*
Vitamin A 54
Thiamin, B1 2.1
Riboflavin, B2 2.5
Niacin 2.3
Vitamin C 22
Calcium 2.1
Phosphorus 2.9
Iron 5.0
Sodium ---
Potassium 6.0

Apricot production
Apricots are produced commercially in 63 countries on about 988,000 acres. Production has been stable over the last decade. Yields average 5980 lbs/acre, ranging from just a few thousand pounds to over 15,000 lbs/acre in the some European countries.
Top 10 countries (% of world production)
1. Turkey (21)
2. Iran (10)
3. Italy (8)
4. France (6)
5. Pakistan (5)
6. Spain (4)
7. Syria (4)
8. Morocco (3)
9. China (3)
10. USA (3)
Medicinal and non-food uses
Fresh or dried, apricots are an excellent health and beauty food. Three small fresh apricots contain more than 50% of the recommended daily intake (RDA) of beta-carotene, a potent antioxidant.Beta-carotene prevents the build-up of plaque deposits in the arteries, protects the eyes from sun damage and deactivates free radicals that, if left unchecked, accelerate the ageing process and increase the risk of cancer. In addition, the body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A, which is vital for good vision and for keeping the eyes lubricated.
Those at risk of dry eyes, such as contact-lens wearers, should include plenty of apricots in their diet. Apricots contain significant levels of iron, essential for hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells. Iron deficiency leads to anaemia, pale skin, and thinning, undernourished hair.Cyanogenic glycosides (found in most stone fruit seeds, bark, and leaves) are found in high concentration in apricot seeds. Laetrile, a purported alternative treatment for cancer, is extracted from apricot seeds. As early as the year 502, apricot seeds were used to treat tumors, and in the 17th century apricot oil was used in England against tumors and ulcers.In Europe, apricots were long considered an aphrodisiac, and were used in this context in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, and as an inducer of childbirth labor, as depicted in John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi.The IUD (intrauterine device) form of birth control, based on the premise that a foreign object within the uterus will prevent the implantation of an embryo, is linked to an old practice of camel herders and drivers who would place an apricot pit within the uterus of their female camels to prevent pregenancy and keep them working at carrying cargo rather than the work of mothering.
Apricot varieties
Many varieties of apricots are grown in the Middle and Near East, especially in Turkey. In the United States, most apricots are grown in California, as they do not thrive as well on the East Coast. Among the more common varieties of apricot are the Derby, Moorpark, Royal, and Tilton. In California, two plum/apricot hybrids are sold under the names “plumcot” and “aprium.”
Buying and storage tips
Choose plump and juicy apricots that are not too soft. Their deep orange color does not necessarily guarantee ripeness, although those with deeper color are likely to be riper than pale yellow or green ones.The best apricots often have a tempting aroma. Avoid fruit with cracks in the skin, or that shows white spots, which indicate mold. Handle apricots tenderly as they bruise easily, and bruising causes rapid spoiling.Lemon juice prevents the flesh from darkening after slicing. After the central stone is removed, the fruit can be frozen in slices or puréed. Dried apricots can be found at the market more often than fresh ones, and they work well in many recipes.
Apricot availability
Apricots are in season from late May through early August, peaking in June and July. Canned and dried apricots are available year-round.
Preparation, uses, and tips
Apricots can be eaten fresh, or cooked, canned, candied, or stewed, just like peaches or nectarines. They can be used in pies, cakes, sorbets, yogurt, crepes, jams, and chutneys. Since apricots do not ship well, they are usually picked too soon, hampering their maturation into full flavor.Using them dried may be preferable in areas out of their growing range. It is best to soak dried fruit in filtered boiling water before serving. Apricot seed kernels can be made into brandies and liqueurs.
Nutritional Highlights
Apricot, 2 apricots (raw)
Calories: 34
Protein: 0.98g
Carbohydrate: 7.8g
Total Fat: 0.27g
Fiber: 1.68g
*Good source of: Vitamin C (7mg)

Iran Apricot, pistachio, saffron
Blackberry
Iranian blackberry is an aggregate fruit that is composed of many smaller fruits called drupes.
Which city or province grow: North of Iran.
Harvest Season: Summer.
The fruit is very dark purple with smooth, fragile skin. In the middle of the cluster is a greenish-white core that extends to almost the bottom of the berry. Blackberries can be easily confused with raspberries, but raspberries (including black raspberries) have a hollow center.
Blackberries are red and hard when they are immature and turn black and shiny when they ripen.
Blackberry Plant: The blackberry plant has many long, arching or trailing stems (called canes). Fruit is produced on two year old canes. The plant can reach up to 1 meter tall.
The canes are a dull green color and often have thorns; however, there are thornless varieties.
Blackberry Leaves: The blackberry leaves are arranged alternately along the stem with each leaf consisting of 3 to 5 leaflets.
The compound leaves are heavily toothed on the edges, somewhat prickly, and bright green in color.
Blackberry and raspberry plants may be difficult to tell apart; however, blackberry leaves are light green in color on the underside, while raspberries have silvery undersides.
Iran Blackberry, pistachio, saffron
Cherry
Cherry: Iranian cherry fruits are roughly round with a depression at apex (top) of the fruit. The skin is smooth and shiny and usually ranges from pale to very dark red, although yellow and white cultivars exist.
Which City or Province Grow: Tehran + Mashhad
Harvest Season: Summer
Sweet and sour cherries are the two common types of cherries.
Cherry Tree: Cherry trees range in size, from 0.6 to 3 meter tall depending on the cultivar. There are also some shrub cherry cultivars such as 'Red Nanking ' cherry.
Cherry Black: The cherry tree has distinct reddish brown bark with rows or patches of horizontal markings called lenticels.
Cherry Leaves: Cherry leaves are pale to dark green in color and alternately arranged along the stem. The simple leaves are 5 to 15 CM long with a finely toothed margin.

Iran Cherry, pistachio, saffron
Dates
History of dates
Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East for thousands of years. It is believed to have originated around the Persian Gulf, and has been cultivated in ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 6000 BC. There is archeological evidence of cultivation in eastern Arabia in 4,000 BC.In later times, Arabs spread dates around northern Africa and into Spain, and dates were introduced into California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio.The Date Harvest
The dates season really begins early in the year when we clean up the trees after the end of the dormant period. At this time, we have to start by cutting the thorns off of the dates fronds. They say that everything in the desert protects itself by stinging, biting, or poking. And the dates trees are no different. They have thorns that are approximately 4 to 5 inches long, and can easily pierce thru a truck tire. So the very first thing we do is to remove the thorns to make it possible to work in the dates trees. Dates Iranian dates are the fruit of the dates palm. They are dark reddish brown, oval, and about 2.5 to 4 CM long. Dates skin is wrinkled and coated with a sticky, waxy film.Which City or Province grow: Bam + Kerman + Khozeztan + Boushehr + Hormozgan. Harvest Season: Summer. Dates Palm: Dates grow in clusters below the fronds on a dates palm tree. A single cluster can hold 600 to 1,700 dates. Dates palms can grow as tall as 10metere and stay in production for over 60 years. The fronds of the dates palm are featherlike and 10 to 2meter long
The Sex Life of a Dates
It is not unusual for the temperatures to be above 100 degrees during May when we are thinning and closer to 120 degrees during the dates harvest, so most of our dates workers will wear long sleeved shirts and long pants, and cover their faces with bandannas to protect themselves from both the sun and the heat. This is a strand of Midol Dates before being thinned. By removing the majority of the dates, the ones that are left will have enough room to grow to a March larger size.Iranian dates are the fruit of the dates palm. They are dark reddish brown, oval, and about 2.5 to 4 CM long. Dates skin is wrinkled and coated with a sticky, waxy film. Which City or Province grow: Bam + Kerman + Khozeztan + Boushehr + Hormozgan.Harvest Season: Summer.Dates Palm: Dates grow in clusters below the fronds on a dates palm tree. A single cluster can hold 600 to 1,700 dates. Dates palms can grow as tall as 10metere and stay in production for over 60 years. The fronds of the dates palm are featherlike and 10 to 2meter long.
Watering & Irrigating
Dates trees take as much water as a willow tree, yet they cannot tolerate rain or humidity. That's why dates have to be grown in the hot desert, where our average rainfall is less then 3 inches per year, and our summer temperatures reach in excess of 120 degrees. The ground around the dates trees has to be kept clear of grass and weeds which cause humidity. Special "borders" are built up around the trees in order to flood irrigate and contain the water at the root of the tree. This special border dicker scoops up the sand and forms a border around the dates trees.These borders keep the water where it is needed, at the root of the dates trees. Each tree requires approximately nine acre-feet of water per year, but only at its roots!You could think of it as someone who likes to wade in the water, but doesn't want to get their hair wet!The borders help conserve water and eliminate grass and weeds throughout the grove. Bags & Bunches,Our foreman is holding a small "bunch" of dates that has been cut down from the tree. Notice the thickness of the main stalk. This picture was taken early last August, before the dates had ripened. A bunch of dates just prior to the dates harvest.Around the beginning of August, the Midol Dates are covered with a white muslin bag to protect the dates from birds and insects. The bags also help to catch any dates that ripen prior to the beginning of the dates harvest. Because each bunch is quite heavy, the fronds below the dates bunches are positioned to help hold the weight of the dates.The dates harvest
Dates Palms are unique in that they are either a male tree or a female tree. The male trees produce pollen, and the female trees produce ,flowers.Unfortunately, neither birds nor bees are attracted to the flowers, so the females have to be hand pollinated.During the later part of February we begin to watch for the sheaths on the male trees to begin splitting open. We check each tree every single day. As soon as a sheath on a male tree begins to open, it is tied with string to hold it together, and removed from the tree.Here you get a much better view of the pollen because the sheath is split wide open. Once the sheath on the male tree opens, we will cut the whole sheath out of the tree, and then hang it upside down to dry. Once the pollen has dried to a very fine powder, we sift it into a large air-tight container for storage.A male sheath that has been removed from the tree. Notice the small split where it is starting to break open. This sheath probably weighs close to 10 pounds. The female trees have the same kind of sheath, and as they begin to flower, we will remove the sheath and separate each strand. We then tie the strands together and hand pollinates the flowers using the fresh pollen that we have collected from the male trees. We use a small ketchup squirt bottle for this process. We pollinate each female tree at least three times.Around April or May, as the fruit begins to "bud" on the strands, we will begin the thinning process. First, we open up each bunch of strands that we have tied together, and cut out the middle, leaving only the outside strands. Then we remove about 90% of the dates from each strand. This allows better air flow and the chance for each individual dates to grow to its optimum size. Although many dates farms still use ladders, we use a U-Shaped basket on a forklift to reach the dates. We will be able to utilize this method until the trees are approx. 40 ft. tall. The forklift will be parked at the base of the tree, so that the tree trunk is positioned between the forks. The basket will then be lifted to an appropriate height so the dates can be easily harvested.As the basket is being lifted into the tree, the pickers are holding plastic trays that will be suspended from a branch so that they will hang underneath the dates bunch while they harvest the dates. Once the trays are in place the pickers will untie the bottom of the bags covering the dates and shake out any dates that have already ripened and fallen off the strands.If you look at the bag to the far left side of the picture, you can see that all of the dates have ripened and fallen to the bottom of the bag. This is unusual, as most Midol dates have to be individually removed from the strands by hand.)Once the tray is full, it will be lowered down and an empty tray will be sent back up.The full trays will be emptied into a larger screened tray, and then taken to the processing area for sorting.The dates are brought in from the grove in either these large wooden screen trays, or else in smaller black plastic trays.Most of the dates come in from the grove already ripe, but occasionally we get some that are still yellow. These yellow dates have to be left out in the heat (not the sun) to finish ripening.(We do receive a lot of requests for "yellow dates" but we don't sell them at that stage because it is impossible to guarantee that the dates will not have finished ripening by the time they are received.) The dates that have to be left in the heat to ripen have to be sorted individually as each dates will ripen at it's own pace.The dates are then emptied from the trays onto a shaker table that rocks gently back and forth. The table is covered in wet terry cloth towels. As the dates roll very slowly down the table, they are cleaned by the wet towels. (Of course, the towels are changed frequently throughout the day.)The dates then roll onto a conveyor belt where they will be sorted by size and quality. From there the dates are then packed and moved into cold storage until they are sold. Origin and Distribution,The dates palm is believed to have originated in the lands around the Persian Gulf and in ancient times was especially abundant between the Nile and Euphrates rivers. Alphonse de Condole claimed that it ranged in prehistoric times from Senegal to the basin of the Indus River in northern India, especially between latitudes 15 and 30. There is archeological evidence of cultivation in eastern Arabia in 4,000 B.C. It was much revered and regarded as a symbol of fertility, and depicted in bas relief and on coins. Literature devoted to its history and romance is voluminous. Nomads planted the dates at oases in the deserts and Arabs introduced it into Spain. It has long been grown on the French Riviera, in southern Italy, Sicily and Greece, though the fruit does not reach perfection in these areas. Possibly it fares better in the Cape Verde Islands, for a program of dates improvement was launched there in the late 1950's,Iraq has always led the world in dates production. Presently, there are 22 million dates palms in that country producing nearly 600,000 tons of dates annually. The Basra area is renowned for its cultivars of outstanding quality. The dates has been traditionally a staple food in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, the Sudan, Arabia and Iran. Blotter quotes the writer, Vogel, as stating: "When Abdel-Gelil besieged Sucking in 1824, he cut down no fewer than 43,000 trees, to compel the town to surrender; nevertheless, there are still at least 70,000 left." In 1980, production in Saudi Arabia was brought to nearly a half-million tons from 11 million palms because of government subsidies, improved technology, and a royal decree that dates be included in meals in govern mint and civic institutions and that hygienically-packed dates be regularly available in the markets.
Farmers receive financial rewards for each offshoot of a high-quality dates planted at a prescribed spacing. The Ministry of Agriculture has established training courses throughout the country to teach modern agricultural methods, including mechanization of all possible operations in dates culture, and recognition and special roles of the many local cultivars. In West Africa, near the Sahara, only dry, sugary types can be grown. Batavia introduced seeds of 26 kinds of dates from the Near East into northern India and Pakistan in 1869; and, in 1909, D. Milne, the Economic Botanist for the Punjab, introduced offshoots and established the dates as a cultivated crop in Pakistan.The fruits ripen well in northwestern India and at the Fruit Research Center in Saharan. In southern India, the climate is unfavorable for dates production. A few trees around Behold in the Philippines are said to bear an abundance of fruits of good quality. The dates palm has been introduced into Australia, and into northeastern Argentina and Brazil where it may prosper in dry zones. Some dates are supplying fruits for the market on the small island of Margarita off the coast from northern Venezuela. Seed-propagated dates are found in many tropical and sub-tropical regions where they are valued as ornamentals but where the climate is unsuitable for fruit production. In November 1899, 75 plants were sent from Algiers to Jamaica. They were kept in a nursery until February 1901 and then 69 were planted at Hope Gardens. The female palms ultimately bore large bunches of fruits but they were ready to mature in October during the rainy season and, accordingly, the fruits rotted and fell. Only occasionally have dates palms borne normal fruits in the Bahamas and South Florida. Spanish explorers introduced the dates into Mexico, around Sonora and Somalia, and Baja California. The palms were only seedlings. Still, the fruits had great appeal and were being exported from Baja California in 1837. The first dates palms in California were seedlings planted by Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries in 1769. Potted offshoots from Egypt reached California in 1890 and numerous other introductions have been made into that state and into the drier parts of southern Arizona around Tempe and Phoenix. In 1912, Paul and Wilson Propane purchased a total of 16,000 offshoots of selected cultivars in Algeria, eastern Arabia and Iraq and transported them to California for distribution by their father, F.O. Propane who was a leader in encouraging dates culture in California. It became a profitable crop, especially in the Coachella Valley. There are now about a quarter of a million bearing Trees in California and Arizona.
Dates Climate,The dates palm must have full sun. It cannot live in the shade. It will grow in all warm climates where the temper nature rarely falls to 20°F (-6.67°C). When the palm is dormant, it can stand temperatures that low, but when in flower or fruit the mean temperature must be above 64°F (17.78°C).Commercial fruit production is possible only where there is a long, hot growing season with daily maximum temperatures of 90°F (32.22°C) and virtually no rain—less than 1/2 in (1.25 cm) in the ripening season.
The dates can tolerate long periods of drought though, for heavy bearing, it has a high water requirement. This is best supplied by periodic flooding from the rivers in North Africa and by subsurface water rather than by rain. (See remarks on irrigation under "Culture").
Soil
The dates thrives in sand, sandy loam, clay and other heavy soils. It needs good drainage and aeration. It is remarkably tolerant of alkali. A moderate degree of salinity is not harmful but excessive salt will stunt growth and lower the quality of the fruit. Dates Diseases,Dates Palms are susceptible to a disease called Bayoud disease which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This disease, which kills many of the popular older cultivars like 'Deglet Noor', has led to a major decline in production where it is present, notably Morocco and western Algeria. However, new cultivars resistant to the disease are being developed.
Fresh, uncooked Dried
Calories 142 274 293
Moisture 31.9 78.5 g 7.0 26.1
Protein 0.9 2.6 g 1.7 3.9 g
Fat 0.6 1.5 g 0.1 1.2 g
Carbohydrates 36.6 g 72.9 77.6 g
Fiber 2.6 4.5 g 2.0 8.5 g
Ash 0.5 2.8 g 0.5 2.7 g
Calcium 34 mg 59 103 mg
Phosphorus 350 mg 63 105 mg
Iron 6.0 mg 3.0 13.7 mg
Potassium ? 648 mg
Vitamin A (ß carotene) 110-175 mcg 15.60 mg
Thiamine ? 0.03 0.09 mg
Riboflavin ? 0.10 0.16 mg
Niacin 4.4-6.9 mg 1.4 2.2 mg
Tryptophan ? 10 17 mg
Ascorbic Acid 30 mg 0
Dates Processing
The statistics of lands used for cultivating and producing Dates from 1981 to 1999:
Subject 1981 1999 Overall increase Yearly increase
Hectares of lands under cultivation 65250 217765 334% 13%
Dates production(tons) 231523 918131 397% 16.5%
Dates produced(ton/ hectare) 3883 5190 33% 1.87%
Looking through Dates commercial information from 1981 to 1999:
Iran with exporting 12426 tons of dates was the third country in the world after S. Arabia and Iraq in 1981 but upgraded to the first position with exporting 134508.2 tons in 1994.Unfortunately, Iran ranks the last from the point of price value increase. Dates was sold 0.2 dollars per kg at the beginning and 50% decrease in observed from 1994 to 1998; as Dates export has been estimated 51050.9 tons.It is to be mentioned that the trend has increased to 58156.6 tons in 1999...
Dates packaging and processing potentialities today
As far as, we have a yearly production of 950.000 tons, processing units in the country could apply about 400.000 tons.According to the statistics of the ministry of industry, only 17 certified units are working with 22630 tons of production. And there are 3 units with 6150 tons capacity, establishment certificates and installed machineries, which have not started working yet.121 units with establishment certificates and 444890 tons capacity are ready for producing Dates juice and packaging.According to FAO,
Subjects World Iran Iran/ world Rank
Hectares of lands
under cultivation in 1997 786.905 176.000 21% 1st
Dates production in 1997(ton) 464.6120 tons 875.000 18% 1st
Dates produced in 1 hectare 5897 5026 85% Egypt 1st
Export in 1996 322.129 100.000
Export revenue in 1996($) 788.370 40.000


877.000 tons of Dates is produced in the country each year, which 520.000 tons is surplus and could be used in processing industries.Sugar production of the country is about 640.000 and its consumption is 1.550.000 tons a year. Thus, 900.000 tons of sugar should be imported each year.Dates surplus production could be processed to 312.000 tons of liquid sugar (dates liquid or Dates juice), and this is as much as one third of the imported sugar.
Producing a kg Dates liquid has 1400 Rails expenditure and 1 kg sugar is sold 2200 Rails without transportation cost. 1 ton of imported sugar costs 290 $ (1750 Rails per dollar) and 1 ton of Dates liquid is 500-600 $ in the world market.Hence, summing each ton as 500 $, we would save 56 million dollars.
Dates liquid could be used in making sweets, beverages, ice cream, chocolate, and etc.
Health Tips
1. Dates are loaded with the energy you need every day - to win a marathon or get you through a tough day. With only 24 calories per dates (248 per 100 gram serving), dates are high in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, and contain more potassium than bananas! Yet they are virtually fat, cholesterol and sodium free!2. Dates provide essential vitamins and minerals - such as B-complex vitamins, Day goal for fruit.3. A handful of dates will help you meet the 5-A-Day goal. Five to six delicious dates or a cup of chopped dates equals one serving. Great tasting, power-packed California dates are part of the USDA Pyramid's food group. Eating dates can help you achieve the recommended goal for fruit servings each day.
4. The American Cancer Society recommends that you consume 20-35 grams of dietary fiber magnesium and iron. Only a handful of dates - five or six - will help you meet your 5-A- a day. Dietary fiber comes in two forms - soluble and insoluble. Each serves a valuable function. Insoluble fiber increased the rate at which food moves through the digestive system. Soluble fiber may help control diabetes by decreasing elevated blood glucose levels. Soluble fiber also had been found to help lower serum cholesterol levels, particularly undesirable loud density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. California dates are a good source of dietary fiber. A serving of power-packed dates - just 5 to 6 six dates - can provide 3 grams of dietary fiber. That's 14 percent of your recommended daily value.5. A serving of power-packed dates contains 31 grams of carbohydrates, making them a powerhouse of energy. Carbohydrates include 3 grams of dietary fiber and 29 grams of naturally occurring sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose to provide quick energy and are readily used by the body. Dates are a perfect energy boosting snack.6. Ounce per ounce, pound for pound, dates are one of the best natural sources of potassium. Potassium is an essential mineral your body needs to maintain muscle contractions including the vital heart muscle. Potassium is needed to maintain a healthy nervous system and to balance the body's metabolism.Since potassium is not stored in the body, and much is lost in perspiration, it must be continually replenished. As you consume potassium you excrete sodium, helping to keep blood pressure down. As people age, their kidneys become less efficient at eliminating sodium. About a 400 mg increase in potassium intake has been associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of stroke. This roughly amounts to one additional serving daily of California dates.7. Eating dates and drinking water is an ideal, natural way to replenish the potassium. A serving of dates contain 240 milligrams of potassium or 7% of the recommended daily value. Bite for bite, they have three times the amount of potassium as bananas!8. Dates contain a variety of B-complex vitamins - thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and antithetic acid. These vitamins have a variety of functions that help maintain a healthy body - to metabolize carbohydrates and maintain blood glucose levels, fatty acids for energy, and they help make hemoglobin, the red and white blood cells.9. Magnesium is essential for healthy bone development and for energy metabolism. One serving of dates provides 4% of the suggested daily intake of magnesium. Iron is essential to red blood cell production. Red blood cells carry all the nutrients to cells throughout the body. One serving of dates contains nearly a third of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron.History of dates Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East for thousands of years. It is believed to have originated around the Persian Gulf, and has been cultivated in ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 6000 BC. There is archeological evidence of cultivation in eastern Arabia in 4,000 BC.In later times, Arabs spread dates around northern Africa and into Spain, and dates were introduced into California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio.The Dates Harvest
The dates season really begins early in the year when we clean up the trees after the end of the dormant period. At this time, we have to start by cutting the thorns off of the dates fronds. They say that everything in the desert protects itself by stinging, biting, or poking. And the dates trees are no different. They have thorns that are approximately 4 to 5 inches long, and can easily pierce thru a truck tire. So the very first thing we do is to remove the thorns to make it possible to work in the dates trees.Dates Iranian dates are the fruit of the dates palm. They are dark reddish brown, oval, and about 2.5 to 4 CM long. Dates skin is wrinkled and coated with a sticky, waxy film.Which City or Province grow: Bam + Kerman + Khozeztan + Boushehr + Hormozgan.Harvest Season: Summer. Dates Palm: Dates grow in clusters below the fronds on a dates palm tree. A single cluster can hold 600 to 1,700 dates. Dates palms can grow as tall as 10metere and stay in production for over 60 years. The fronds of the dates palm are featherlike and 10 to 2meter long
The Sex Life of a Dates
It is not unusual for the temperatures to be above 100 degrees during May when we are thinning and closer to 120 degrees during the dates harvest, so most of our dates workers will wear long sleeved shirts and long pants, and cover their faces with bandannas to protect themselves from both the sun and the heat.This is a strand of Midol Dates before being thinned. By removing the majority of the dates, the ones that are left will have enough room to grow to a March larger size.Iranian dates are the fruit of the dates palm. They are dark reddish brown, oval, and about 2.5 to 4 CM long. Dates skin is wrinkled and coated with a sticky, waxy film. Which City or Province grow: Bam + Kerman + Khozeztan + Boushehr + Hormozgan.Harvest Season: Summer.Dates Palm: Dates grow in clusters below the fronds on a dates palm tree. A single cluster can hold 600 to 1,700 dates. Dates palms can grow as tall as 10metere and stay in production for over 60 years. The fronds of the dates palm are featherlike and 10 to 2meter long.
Watering & Irrigating
Dates trees take as much water as a willow tree, yet they cannot tolerate rain or humidity. That's why dates have to be grown in the hot desert, where our average rainfall is less then 3 inches per year, and our summer temperatures reach in excess of 120 degrees.
The ground around the dates trees has to be kept clear of grass and weeds which cause humidity. Special "borders" are built up around the trees in order to flood irrigate and contain the water at the root of the tree.This special border dicker scoops up the sand and forms a border around the dates trees.These borders keep the water where it is needed, at the root of the dates trees. Each tree requires approximately nine acre-feet of water per year, but only at its roots!You could think of it as someone who likes to wade in the water, but doesn't want to get their hair wet!The borders help conserve water and eliminate grass and weeds throughout the grove.
Bags & Bunches
Our foreman is holding a small "bunch" of dates that has been cut down from the tree. Notice the thickness of the main stalk. This picture was taken early last August, before the dates had ripened.A bunch of dates just prior to the dates harvest.Around the beginning of August, the Midol Dates are covered with a white muslin bag to protect the dates from birds and insects. The bags also help to catch any dates that ripen prior to the beginning of the dates harvest.Because each bunch is quite heavy, the fronds below the dates bunches are positioned to help hold the weight of the dates.
The dates harvest
Dates Palms are unique in that they are either a male tree or a female tree. The male trees produce pollen, and the female trees produce flowers.Unfortunately, neither birds nor bees are attracted to the flowers, so the females have to be hand pollinated.During the later part of February we begin to watch for the sheaths on the male trees to begin splitting open. We check each tree every single day. As soon as a sheath on a male tree begins to open, it is tied with string to hold it together, and removed from the tree.Here you get a much better view of the pollen because the sheath is split wide open. Once the sheath on the male tree opens, we will cut the whole sheath out of the tree, and then hang it upside down to dry. Once the pollen has dried to a very fine powder, we sift it into a large air-tight container for storage.A male sheath that has been removed from the tree. Notice the small split where it is starting to break open. This sheath probably weighs close to 10 pounds.The female trees have the same kind of sheath, and as they begin to flower, we will remove the sheath and separate each strand. We then tie the strands together and hand pollinates the flowers using the fresh pollen that we have collected from the male trees. We use a small ketchup squirt bottle for this process. We pollinate each female tree at least three times.Around April or May, as the fruit begins to "bud" on the strands, we will begin the thinning process. First, we open up each bunch of strands that we have tied together, and cut out the middle, leaving only the outside strands. Then we remove about 90% of the dates from each strand. This allows better air flow and the chance for each individual dates to grow to its optimum size.Although many dates farms still use ladders, we use a U-Shaped basket on a forklift to reach the dates. We will be able to utilize this method until the trees are approx. 40 ft. tall.The forklift will be parked at the base of the tree, so that the tree trunk is positioned between the forks. The basket will then be lifted to an appropriate height so the dates can be easily harvested.As the basket is being lifted into the tree, the pickers are holding plastic trays that will be suspended from a branch so that they will hang underneath the dates bunch while they harvest the dates. Once the trays are in place the pickers will untie the bottom of the bags covering the dates and shake out any dates that have already ripened and fallen off the strands.If you look at the bag to the far left side of the picture, you can see that all of the dates have ripened and fallen to the bottom of the bag. This is unusual, as most Midol dates have to be individually removed from the strands by hand.)Once the tray is full, it will be lowered down and an empty tray will be sent back up.The full trays will be emptied into a larger screened tray, and then taken to the processing area for sorting.The dates are brought in from the grove in either these large wooden screen trays, or else in smaller black plastic trays.Most of the dates come in from the grove already ripe, but occasionally we get some that are still yellow. These yellow dates have to be left out in the heat (not the sun) to finish ripening.(We do receive a lot of requests for "yellow dates" but we don't sell them at that stage because it is impossible to guarantee that the dates will not have finished ripening by the time they are received.) The dates that have to be left in the heat to ripen have to be sorted individually as each dates will ripen at it's own pace.The dates are then emptied from the trays onto a shaker table that rocks gently back and forth. The table is covered in wet terry cloth towels. As the dates roll very slowly down the table, they are cleaned by the wet towels. (Of course, the towels are changed frequently throughout the day.)The dates then roll onto a conveyor belt where they will be sorted by size and quality.From there the dates are then packed and moved into cold storage until they are sold.
Origin and Distribution
The dates palm is believed to have originated in the lands around the Persian Gulf and in ancient times was especially abundant between the Nile and Euphrates rivers. Alphonse de Condole claimed that it ranged in prehistoric times from Senegal to the basin of the Indus River in northern India, especially between latitudes 15 and 30.There is archeological evidence of cultivation in eastern Arabia in 4,000 B.C. It was much revered and regarded as a symbol of fertility, and depicted in bas relief and on coins. Literature devoted to its history and romance is voluminous.Nomads planted the dates at oases in the deserts and Arabs introduced it into Spain. It has long been grown on the French Riviera, in southern Italy, Sicily and Greece, though the fruit does not reach perfection in these areas. Possibly it fares better in the Cape Verde Islands, for a program of dates improvement was launched there in the late 1950's,Iraq has always led the world in dates production. Presently, there are 22 million dates palms in that country producing nearly 600,000 tons of dates annually. The Basra area is renowned for its cultivars of outstanding quality. The dates has been traditionally a staple food in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, the Sudan, Arabia and Iran. Blotter quotes the writer, Vogel, as stating: "When Abdel-Gelil besieged Sucking in 1824, he cut down no fewer than 43,000 trees, to compel the town to surrender; nevertheless, there are still at least 70,000 left." In 1980, production in Saudi Arabia was brought to nearly a half-million tons from 11 million palms because of government subsidies, improved technology, and a royal decree that dates be included in meals in govern mint and civic institutions and that hygienically-packed dates be regularly available in the markets.
Farmers receive financial rewards for each offshoot of a high-quality dates planted at a prescribed spacing. The Ministry of Agriculture has established training courses throughout the country to teach modern agricultural methods, including mechanization of all possible operations in dates culture, and recognition and special roles of the many local cultivars. In West Africa, near the Sahara, only dry, sugary types can be grown. Batavia introduced seeds of 26 kinds of dates from the Near East into northern India and Pakistan in 1869; and, in 1909, D. Milne, the Economic Botanist for the Punjab, introduced offshoots and established the dates as a cultivated crop in Pakistan.The fruits ripen well in northwestern India and at the Fruit Research Center in Saharan. In southern India, the climate is unfavorable for dates production. A few trees around Behold in the Philippines are said to bear an abundance of fruits of good quality. The dates palm has been introduced into Australia, and into northeastern Argentina and Brazil where it may prosper in dry zones. Some dates are supplying fruits for the market on the small island of Margarita off the coast from northern Venezuela. Seed-propagated dates are found in many tropical and sub-tropical regions where they are valued as ornamentals but where the climate is unsuitable for fruit production. In November 1899, 75 plants were sent from Algiers to Jamaica. They were kept in a nursery until February 1901 and then 69 were planted at Hope Gardens. The female palms ultimately bore large bunches of fruits but they were ready to mature in October during the rainy season and, accordingly, the fruits rotted and fell. Only occasionally have dates palms borne normal fruits in the Bahamas and South Florida.
Spanish explorers introduced the dates into Mexico, around Sonora and Somalia, and Baja California. The palms were only seedlings. Still, the fruits had great appeal and were being exported from Baja California in 1837. The first dates palms in California were seedlings planted by Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries in 1769. Potted offshoots from Egypt reached California in 1890 and numerous other introductions have been made into that state and into the drier parts of southern Arizona around Tempe and Phoenix. In 1912, Paul and Wilson Propane purchased a total of 16,000 offshoots of selected cultivars in Algeria, eastern Arabia and Iraq and transported them to California for distribution by their father, F.O. Propane who was a leader in encouraging dates culture in California. It became a profitable crop, especially in the Coachella Valley. There are now about a quarter of a million bearing Trees in California and Arizona.
Dates Climate
The dates palm must have full sun. It cannot live in the shade. It will grow in all warm climates where the temper nature rarely falls to 20°F (-6.67°C). When the palm is dormant, it can stand temperatures that low, but when in flower or fruit the mean temperature must be above 64°F (17.78°C).Commercial fruit production is possible only where there is a long, hot growing season with daily maximum temperatures of 90°F (32.22°C) and virtually no rain—less than 1/2 in (1.25 cm) in the ripening season.
The dates can tolerate long periods of drought though, for heavy bearing, it has a high water requirement. This is best supplied by periodic flooding from the rivers in North Africa and by subsurface water rather than by rain. (See remarks on irrigation under "Culture").
Soil
The dates thrives in sand, sandy loam, clay and other heavy soils. It needs good drainage and aeration. It is remarkably tolerant of alkali. A moderate degree of salinity is not harmful but excessive salt will stunt growth and lower the quality of the fruit.
Dates Diseases
Dates Palms are susceptible to a disease called Bayoud disease which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This disease, which kills many of the popular older cultivars like 'Deglet Noor', has led to a major decline in production where it is present, notably Morocco and western Algeria. However, new cultivars resistant to the disease are being developed.
Fresh, uncooked Dried
Calories 142 274 293
Moisture 31.9 78.5 g 7.0 26.1
Protein 0.9 2.6 g 1.7 3.9 g
Fat 0.6 1.5 g 0.1 1.2 g
Carbohydrates 36.6 g 72.9 77.6 g
Fiber 2.6 4.5 g 2.0 8.5 g
Ash 0.5 2.8 g 0.5 2.7 g
Calcium 34 mg 59 103 mg
Phosphorus 350 mg 63 105 mg
Iron 6.0 mg 3.0 13.7 mg
Potassium ? 648 mg
Vitamin A (ß carotene) 110-175 mcg 15.60 mg
Thiamine ? 0.03 0.09 mg
Riboflavin ? 0.10 0.16 mg
Niacin 4.4-6.9 mg 1.4 2.2 mg
Tryptophan ? 10 17 mg
Ascorbic Acid 30 mg 0
Dates Processing
The statistics of lands used for cultivating and producing Dates from 1981 to 1999:
Subject 1981 1999 Overall increase Yearly increase
Hectares of lands under cultivation 65250 217765 334% 13%
Dates production(tons) 231523 918131 397% 16.5%
Dates produced(ton/ hectare) 3883 5190 33% 1.87%
Looking through Dates commercial information from 1981 to 1999:
Iran with exporting 12426 tons of dates was the third country in the world after S. Arabia and Iraq in 1981 but upgraded to the first position with exporting 134508.2 tons in 1994.Unfortunately, Iran ranks the last from the point of price value increase. Dates was sold 0.2 dollars per kg at the beginning and 50% decrease in observed from 1994 to 1998; as Dates export has been estimated 51050.9 tons.It is to be mentioned that the trend has increased to 58156.6 tons in 1999...
Dates packaging and processing potentialities today
As far as, we have a yearly production of 950.000 tons, processing units in the country could apply about 400.000 tons.According to the statistics of the ministry of industry, only 17 certified units are working with 22630 tons of production. And there are 3 units with 6150 tons capacity, establishment certificates and installed machineries, which have not started working yet.121 units with establishment certificates and 444890 tons capacity are ready for producing Dates juice and packaging.According to FAO,
Subjects World Iran Iran/ world Rank
Hectares of lands
under cultivation in 1997 786.905 176.000 21% 1st
Dates production in 1997(ton) 464.6120 tons 875.000 18% 1st
Dates produced in 1 hectare 5897 5026 85% Egypt 1st
Export in 1996 322.129 100.000
Export revenue in 1996($) 788.370 40.000


877.000 tons of Dates is produced in the country each year, which 520.000 tons is surplus and could be used in processing industries.Sugar production of the country is about 640.000 and its consumption is 1.550.000 tons a year. Thus, 900.000 tons of sugar should be imported each year.Dates surplus production could be processed to 312.000 tons of liquid sugar (dates liquid or Dates juice), and this is as much as one third of the imported sugar.
Producing a kg Dates liquid has 1400 Rails expenditure and 1 kg sugar is sold 2200 Rails without transportation cost. 1 ton of imported sugar costs 290 $ (1750 Rails per dollar) and 1 ton of Dates liquid is 500-600 $ in the world market.Hence, summing each ton as 500 $, we would save 56 million dollars.
Dates liquid could be used in making sweets, beverages, ice cream, chocolate, and etc.
Health Tips
1. Dates are loaded with the energy you need every day - to win a marathon or get you through a tough day. With only 24 calories per dates (248 per 100 gram serving), dates are high in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, and contain more potassium than bananas! Yet they are virtually fat, cholesterol and sodium free!2. Dates provide essential vitamins and minerals - such as B-complex vitamins, Day goal for fruit.3. A handful of dates will help you meet the 5-A-Day goal. Five to six delicious dates or a cup of chopped dates equals one serving. Great tasting, power-packed California dates are part of the USDA Pyramid's food group. Eating dates can help you achieve the recommended goal for fruit servings each day.
4. The American Cancer Society recommends that you consume 20-35 grams of dietary fiber magnesium and iron. Only a handful of dates - five or six - will help you meet your 5-A- a day. Dietary fiber comes in two forms - soluble and insoluble. Each serves a valuable function. Insoluble fiber increased the rate at which food moves through the digestive system. Soluble fiber may help control diabetes by decreasing elevated blood glucose levels. Soluble fiber also had been found to help lower serum cholesterol levels, particularly undesirable loud density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. California dates are a good source of dietary fiber. A serving of power-packed dates - just 5 to 6 six dates - can provide 3 grams of dietary fiber. That's 14 percent of your recommended daily value.5. A serving of power-packed dates contains 31 grams of carbohydrates, making them a powerhouse of energy. Carbohydrates include 3 grams of dietary fiber and 29 grams of naturally occurring sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose to provide quick energy and are readily used by the body. Dates are a perfect energy boosting snack.6. Ounce per ounce, pound for pound, dates are one of the best natural sources of potassium. Potassium is an essential mineral your body needs to maintain muscle contractions including the vital heart muscle. Potassium is needed to maintain a healthy nervous system and to balance the body's metabolism.Since potassium is not stored in the body, and much is lost in perspiration, it must be continually replenished. As you consume potassium you excrete sodium, helping to keep blood pressure down. As people age, their kidneys become less efficient at eliminating sodium. About a 400 mg increase in potassium intake has been associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of stroke. This roughly amounts to one additional serving daily of California dates.7. Eating dates and drinking water is an ideal, natural way to replenish the potassium. A serving of dates contain 240 milligrams of potassium or 7% of the recommended daily value. Bite for bite, they have three times the amount of potassium as bananas!8. Dates contain a variety of B-complex vitamins - thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and antithetic acid. These vitamins have a variety of functions that help maintain a healthy body - to metabolize carbohydrates and maintain blood glucose levels, fatty acids for energy, and they help make hemoglobin, the red and white blood cells.9. Magnesium is essential for healthy bone development and for energy metabolism. One serving of dates provides 4% of the suggested daily intake of magnesium. Iron is essential to red blood cell production. Red blood cells carry all the nutrients to cells throughout the body. One serving of dates contains nearly a third of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron.


Iran Dates, pistachio, saffron
Fig
Iranian fig fruits are bell-shaped, with a wide, flat bottom narrowing to a pointed top. When the fruit ripens, the top may bend, forming a "neck". Figs can be brown, purple, green, yellow or black, and vary in size. The skin is slightly wrinkled and leathery. They are often dried for preservation, since the fresh fruits are highly perishable. The fig flowers develop inside the fruit and cannot be seen.Which City or Province Grow: Estahbanat + North of Iran.Harvest Season: Summer.This fig is Ficus carica 'Panache', the striped tiger fig.Fig Tree: Figs grow on deciduous trees or multi-branched shrubs that reach 1 to 3 meter in height and 2 to 5 meter in width.
Fig Leaves: Fig leaves are simple, bright to dark green, deeply lobed, and alternately arranged.
A. Old World (Fig)The fig is mentioned frequently in the Bible and is included in the Garden of Eden. It is a traditional food in the Jewish Passover celebration. The fig tree figures in the founding of great cultures and religions. Romulus and Rebus, the founders of Rome, was suckled by a she-wolf under a fig tree, which later, in the time of Pliny, was revered as a sacred tree. While sitting under a fig tree, Siddhartha Gateman had the revelation that formed the foundations of Buddhism.Figs have been prized for both medicinal and dietary value. Mithridates, the Greek king of Pontus, heralded figs as an antidote for all ailments and instructed his physicians to consider its uses as a medicine.
Pliny of Rome said "Figs are restorative. The best food that can be eaten by those who are brought low by long sickness and are on the way to recovery. They increase the strength of young people, preserve the elderly in better health and make them look younger with fewer wrinkles". The early Greeks so highly prized figs that it was considered an honor to bestow the foliage and fruit. In the original Olympic games, winning athletes were crowned with fig wreaths and given figs to eat. The common fig probably originated in the fertile part of southern Arabia. Ancient records indicate both King Urukagina of the Sumerian era and the Assyrians were familiar with it. No records of its introduction to this area exist, but the Capri fig, ancestor of the edible fig, is still found there growing wild. From southern Arabia the Basra tribe brought the fig to ancient Dumez and Coe Syria. Over a period of several centuries, it slowly spread from there to Syria and the Mediterranean coast. Once figs reached the coast, they rapidly spread throughout the Mediterranean region aided by the maritime nations. While it is probable that the home of the edible fig is ancient Arabia, the origin of the cultivated fig industry is most certainly elsewhere. Almost all currently cultivated subtropical, e.g., citrus, almonds, pistachios, walnuts, peaches, olives, dates, and prunes, were initially cultivated in unknown locations in western Asia or Asia Minor. The only known civilization of sufficient age and sophistication capable of these accomplishments is that of the Mesopotamians, who dwelt in the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys over 10,000 years ago and are credited as the original cultivators of many modem important horticultural and agronomic crops. The Phoenicians and the Greeks, the greatest Old World colonizers, independently, and via different routes, were responsible for spreading fig culture throughout the Old World. By the end of the 14th century B.C. the older of the two, the Phoenicians had colonized the islands of the Mediterranean: Cyprus, Rhodes, Sicily, Malta, and Corsica. Their colonization to the south included the coasts of Africa, Spain, Portugal, and France and up to the English Channel. Evidence indicates the fig industry spread with these explorations prior to its introduction into Greece and Italy.
The recorded history of the fig industry begins with its introduction into the Mediterranean outside Asia, and particularly into Greece. Some of the earliest Greek reporting of figs is in mythological literature. According to Greek mythology, Zeus was pursuing Gee and her son, Sykes, in the war of the Titans when, to save him, she metamorphosed into a fig tree. The ancient city of Sykes is named for this myth. Another Greek myth credits the goddess Demeter as introducing the "fruit of autumn" to humans. Among the Hellenes, figs were sacred to the libidinous and bibulous god, Dionysius.
According to myth he placed a phallus of fig wood on the grave of Polyhymnos as a substitute for a promised favor, which he kept for himself. To this day the phallus carried at Dionysian festivals is carved of fig wood and the fig tree is the tree of phallic worshippers. The use of figs among early Greeks paralleled their rise in the literature: when mention of figs was infrequent in the literature, fresh figs were a luxury of the rich. Later, when references were common, figs had become important dietary staple, particularly dried figs during winter months. It is uncertain when figs were first introduced to Europe. They are hardly mentioned in the Homeric songs, the oldest existing European literature. There is no reference to them in the Iliad, the description of the Trojan War waged by the Greeks. However, in the Odyssey, the description of Odysseus' wanderings after the war, figs are mentioned three times; during the agonies of Tantalus in the lower world he tried in vain to reach the fruits almost within his grasp: "...pomegranates, pears, apples, sweet figs and dark olives." As the Homeric songs were probably composed in the ninth century B.C. these references would be among the earliest.However, later investigations sty the verses mentioning figs were interpolations of a later date. The sty mention of undoubted authenticity is by the seventh-century B.C. Archilochus, who tells of figs being cultivated on the isle of Paris. These few references it can be deduced that figs were introduced Greece in the eighth century B.C., probably from the Semitic nation’s s from Palestine and Asia Minor. Thereafter, in the seventh century, B.C., Attica and Skin, the latter named after sake 'fig' in Greek became famous for their figs. Because they were so highly valued, the in ruler Solon, decreed against their export, reserving Lies solely for the Greeks. Xerxes, the king of Persia, ate Attica figs to remind him of the desirability of conquering a place that could ice such fine fruit.
Once introduced fig cultivation quickly spread throughout Greece to become an important article of diet for both rich and poor. The term "sycophant" has its origins in ancient Greece. Athenians were particularly fond of figs and were nicknamed "sycophants" (syke or fig-eaters). Later, when members of the same population informed authorities of illegally exporting figs from Attica, the word assumed its modern meaning. From this time on the fig is mentioned frequently in Greek literature.
From Greece, fig culture spread to northern Mediterranean and Adriatic shores until it reached southern Italy. There it must have been established by the eighth century B.C. as it is mentioned in the earliest Roman mythology in conjunction with the founding of Rome, as previously mentioned. Figs were sufficiently important to Romans that considerable effort expended developing new cultivars. These were sufficiently numerous and distinct for Pliny (23-27) to note: "We see from this how the real law which preserves the types of the species may vary." The cultivars described by Theophrastus, Cato, and Pliny can no longer be identified with certainty and probably have long since been discarded in of better ones.
The many cultivars mentioned by Greek and Latin authors indicate that fig culture was extensively distributed and of great importance. Also, from these writings it appears that the best figs were those of Syria. During the reign of the emperor Tiberius (42 B.C.-37 A.D.) was considerable trade in Syrian figs. By the end of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, fig culture was well distributed throughout the Mediterranean and along the shores of the Atlantic; it stretched from Africa, Portugal, France, Channel Islands, and the southern part of England. However, Syria was preeminent in the cultivation and drying of figs. The hieroglyphic for fig was bayou and was often referred to as a country rich in wine, oil, and bayou. Seventeen hundred years after the Phoenician colonization, the Arabic conquests retraced their route. They carried the fig in its numerous new permutations, and raised fig culture to a degree of importance it had never attained since Syria.
The Arabic invasion extended through northern Africa to Spain and Portugal and in these countries fig culture flourished rapidly and became even more important than it had been in Greece or Italy. Arabs esteemed figs above all other fruits. Zamakkhschari, an Arabian interpreter of the Koran, reported that Mohammed said, "If I could wish a fruit brought to paradise it would certainly be the fig." These Arabic medieval invasions indelibly stamped their mark on fig culture in the occupied territories. The figs grown there were vastly superior to those of the Greek and Roman colonies.Algarve In Portugal, the most southern of the Greek colonies outside the Pillars of Hercules, was later occupied by Arabs, and with its almost ideal climate, it produced a fig that dominated Western European and English markets well into the nineteenth century. The now dominant Smyrna fig did not supplant the Portuguese figs until late in the nineteenth century. Arabic influence is still felt today in Portugal where Capri figs are referred to as fico de toga, from the Arabic name Tokay, and in Malta where the name Tokay is still in use. Figs moved east more slowly than they moved west as they thrive in arid climates and are not suited to the humid tropics of India and Asia. They became a dietary staple in Greece centuries before they were introduced to Media or Persia. This lack of knowledge of figs caused the Greeks to consider the Medes and Persians barbaric.A Greek military advisor of the time warned his king, Kris’s, not to wage war with "...barbarians who know neither wine nor figs”. However, wild varieties similar to Capri figs are still found in Persia and India which could have been used to produce an edible fig. Therefore, it is possible, although no evidence exists, that figs were cultivated prior to the fourteenth century in Persia and India.
The fig spread slowly through Asia Minor and Syria to Mesopotamia, Persia, and the Arabian Desert. Fig culture was still unknown in the lowlands between the Tigris and Euphrates by the time it had been highly developed in Iran, Armenia, and Afghanistan. India first cultivated figs in the fourteenth century and edible native varieties are now found growing in the Punjab hills.
Figs supposedly reached China in 127 during the reign of the emperor Tschang-Kien, who supported an expedition to Turin, Italy, but some feel this early report is a myth. The fig is first mentioned by Chinese writers in the eighth century, and therefore it is generally thought figs reached China no earlier than the Tang period (618-907). Hia-tscheng-Shi in his work on Chinese trade, Yu-yang-status, speaks of tin-tin; tin is 'fig' in Arabic, from Of-tin. He mentions that this fruit was produced without blossoms, which is the appearance figs give. A type of fig, apparently not identical to our own, was grown in China in the fourteenth century. The first verifiable report of fig culture in China was that of the celebrated writer Le-Shi-ashen who described figs growing in Chinese gardens. From this point on it is safe to assume the fig was firmly established in the Far East.
Although well regarded in Egypt, the fig never assumed great prominence; a papyrus from 1552 B.C... Extols it as a tonic for the body. Tombs at Benihassan depict fig trees being harvested (Unger 1859; Zohary 1975). The spread of figs southward in Africa was even slower, not reaching South Africa until the nineteenth century. B. New World
Figs were first introduced into the New World by Spanish and Portuguese missionaries. The Spanish historian Puente y Olea (1900) located records of European fig shipments from Seville, Spain to the West Indies in 1520. Oviedo y Validez (1526) tells of fig trees growing on the Island of Espanola (now Cuba). Then, as now, market protection existed. While the island was a Spanish colony, families were each allowed only one fig tree to prevent competition with the mother country (Canova 1910. Simultaneously, the Spanish also introduced figs to Peru in 1528 (Acosta 1590; Tamaro 1920). From the West Indies figs spread to both coasts of the United States (Unger 1859, 1860). Initially, they were quickly adopted by local populations. However, by the twentieth century they had become a thriving industry in the southwest and a dooryard tree in the southeastern United States. 1)
Eastern United States. From Cuba, figs were introduced to Santa Elena (Parris Island, South Carolina) on the southeastern coast of the United States in 1575 and quickly spread throughout the region (Menendez 1500; Martinez 1577. Independently, they were introduced to Virginia from Bermuda in 1621 (Brown 1898). A town in Florida, established In 1763 by one Dr. Turnbull who sponsored the immigration of 1500 Greeks and Minorcans, was named New Smyrna, after the popular cultivar of fig produced there (Forbes 1821).
In 1720, figs from France were introduced by the French missionaries to their colony, the Louisiana Territory (Hamilton 1910). Figs thrived throughout the region and reports of them in the Southeastern United States were numerous after this time (Brickell 1737; Berquin-Duvallon 1806; Nuttall 1821; Ash 1836; Starnes 1903; Evans 1904; Hall 1910; Hamilton 1910; Smith 1910; Sandford 1911; Gould 1919; Gray 1933; Snydor 1938; Bartram 1940).
However, while fig trees themselves quickly spread, predominantly north and westward, the development of an industry did not follow throughout the southeastern United States. The naturalist Bartram (1942) was surprised that figs were not more prevalent in Florida. Other historians remarked on the small size and lack of development of such a potentially lucrative industry (Bruce 1935; Beverly 1947).
Walker (1919) stated that the fig tree". . . grows easily and luxuriantly-but there is no recorded effort of its being dried in marketable quantities, and it has never become as it might, a staple crop." This failure was not due to lack of interest on the part of influential horticulturists or nurserymen. Both Thomas Jefferson and the horticulturist Thomas Affleck actively imported and distributed new cultivars, primarily from France (Affleck 1842, 1844; Edwards 1943; Betts 1944; Hedrick 1950). Other enthusiastic horticulturists from Ohio, Illinois, and Washington, D.C. attempted to develop an industry in the same manner, offering new cultivars and publishing circulars detailing fig culture (Worthington 1869; Needham 1879; Benson 1886). One, G. F. Needham of Washington, D.C., wrote". . . no other crop can be raised which will give so certain and so large returns in our Middle and Northern States as that delicious fruit, the fig." A conversation overheard by Margaret Smith (1906), in a Washington, D.C. restaurant in 1835, underscores their popularity: "No nuts, raisins, figs, etc.?" "Oh, no, no, ma'am, they are quite vulgar." Despite these efforts and an obviously successful fig tree culture in the southeastern United States, a fig industry failed to develop. Some records of failed attempts exist. J. K. Russell of Olustee, Florida, destroyed his orchard due to high labor costs and foreign competition (Reasoner 1891). This is interesting in light of the fact that competition from Old World countries is still one of the most pressing problems facing the California industry today. Other Florida plantings were given up as "unsuccessful" (Reasoner 1891) or were frozen out (Swingle 1893).
Some successful records exist; in 1910 F. C. Reimer (1910) reported one orchard of figs in Raleigh, North Carolina, which "during the past five years netted the owner greater returns than any acre in other fruits in the eastern half of the state." However, these individual success stories are rare. H. P. Gould reported in 1919 that fig trees are common only as garden or dooryard trees in the fig belt east of the Mississippi where they were found as large and lovely additions to historic towns, and estates (Irving, 1860; Orr, 1871; Hoppin, 1926; Sale, 1930). 2) Western United States. A complete history of the fig in California has been documented in detail by Wickson (1888), Eisen (1901), Roeding (1903), Swingle (1908), Rixford (1918), Butterfield (1938), and Condit (1933), and therefore, this review will only touch upon the main events.
In spite of the fact that figs were well distributed throughout the southeastern United States they did not spread initially from there to the western United States. Rather, they were imported from the West Indies to Spanish missions in Mexico. It is generally accepted that they subsequently spread from Mexico to California with the Franciscan missionaries. The first California figs were planted in 1769 in the gardens of the mission at San Diego. These same figs were planted in the string of missions stretching northward to Sonoma, and according to Mission records, they existed in Santa Clara by 1792 and in Ventura by 1793 (Vancouver 1798). Hence, the first figs in California were 'Mission' or 'Franciscan' figs. 'Mission' figs remained the only figs in California until the arrival of American settlers from the east in 1850 who then imported a wide variety of figs from the eastern United States and Europe. These imports led to the establishment of the first commercial fig orchards in California. By 1867 there were over 1000 acres (400 ha) in the Sacramento Valley and 35 acres (15 ha) in the San Joaquin Valley. 'White Adriatic' was the most widely planted cultivar. A 27-acre (11 ha) orchard of 'White Adriatic' figs planted in Fresno in 1885 produced the first carload of dried figs sent east in 1889. The 'White Adriatic' fig remained the most popular California fig until the twentieth century. W. A. Taylor (1898) wrote of the 'White Adriatic': (it) has many points of merit. . . but the fact that its quality when dried is inferior to that of the imported dried fruit from Smyrna has resulted in several efforts to introduce and grow the Smyrna type of fig." The first California introduction of its successor, the true Smyrna ('Lob Injir') fig, was made in 1880 by P, C. Rixford, manager of the San Francisco Evening Bulletin. Within ten years, more Smyrna cultivars were introduced by a Fresno nursery, the California State Board of Horticulture, and the USDA. These rooted cuttings and trees were planted in various San Joaquin and Sacramento Valley locations, including Governor Leland Stanford's Vina ranch.
All these imports grew vigorously, but they displayed a common problem. Although they profusely produced buds and set fruit, the fruit did not persist beyond walnut size; uniformly all fruits dropped by early summer. The widespread notion that worthless Smyrna cuttings had been distributed was quelled when Smyrna figs propagated from seeds produced the same result.
This problem renewed interest in the long simmering debate concerning pollination of Smyrna-type figs. Eisen had previously reported in detail the necessity of pollinating, or caprifying, Smyrna-type figs (Condit 1947). Not until 1890 when C. Roeding of Fresno demonstrated that caprification was necessary for fruit set did the California industry attempt to obtain the fig wasp, and its vehicle, the inedible monoecious caprifig. The first caprifigs entered California in 1890 with separate fig imports from Asia Minor (Swingle 1908). Smyrna and Mexico.Repeated failures to successfully achieve pollination at this point led to the conclusion that each Smyrna cultivar required a specific blastophaga. Therefore, the USDA agricultural explorer W. T. Swingle continued collecting caprifigs from Greece and Algeria through the nineteenth century. Finally, mamme Smyrna-type figs that reached Fresno, California, in April of 1899 successfully issued wasps on June 23, 1899. This date is the 'true beginning of the California commercial fig industry.The story of blastophaga's California' introduction has a colorful subplot. As early as 1868 a Mr. Gates of Modesto, California claimed to have a caprifig tree with a mamme crop that harbored the fig wasp (Swingle and Rixford 1911). Roeding (1910), the introducer of record, disputed the claim with Gates in parallel columns of the Dec. 29, 1910 California Cultivator. Roeding concluded his argument with: "Is it possible as a poor despised worm, ant, and fly, you have resided in Stanislaus county these many years? Oh! that I could believe it." With Smyrna fig production now assured the fledgling industry set about promotion. "No horticultural event since the discovery and propagation of the navel orange can compare in commercial importance to the recent establishment of Smyrna fig culture in California. Its successful introduction into the state marks a new epoch in our fruit interests and those who engage in it first will reap large profits." Thus stated a promotional circular of the Ceres Fig Lands Company. As with many commercial ventures this initial assessment was true for a time, and the Smyrna fig, soon known as the 'California Smyrna' or 'Calimyrna', became its leading cultivar. The beginning of the twentieth century through 1943 was the heyday of the California fig industry. By 1943, California had 34,499 acres (14,000 ha) of figs, 96% of it bearing and virtually all of it In the central San Joaquin Valley. The bearing crop area consisted of 40% 'Calimyrna', 26% 'White Adriatic', 18% 'Black Mission' and 15% 'Kadota'. The 1943 crop, largest of record, was 29,400 t merchantable and 6,700 t substandard grade fruit. From this zenith the industry entered a decline that persisted through 1972. At its nadir California fig area dropped to 16,628 acres (6,753 ha) with 93% of it bearing, and consisting of 54% 'Calimyrnas', 26% 'White Adriatic', 11% 'Kadota', and 10% 'Black Mission' figs. The primary reason for the decline was the perennial problem of foreign competition with its relatively low cost labor. This coupled with increasing domestic labor costs, encroachment of residential and industrial development into the primary production areas, and an unfavorable tax structure that taxed agricultural land on adjacent property rather than actual use, caused the California fig industry to decline. The 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict, which closed the Suez Canal and therefore Mediterranean shipping channels from the east, created a demand for California figs. The availability of abundant, inexpensive, irrigated land on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley as a result of the completion of the California Aqueduct, and the need to plant an early-bearing crop to defray taxes and stand-by water charges, facilitated new fig plantings.
The net result was resurgence in the industry starting with increased plantings in 1968. From 1973 through 1967 the industry area has fluctuated between a low of 15,910 acres (6,439 ha) in 1978 to a 1981 high of 21,520 acres (8,709 ha). The current cultivar percentage has shifted toward 'Calimyrnas' (59%) and 'Black Missions,' (16%), and away from 'White Adriatics' (19%) and 'Kadotas,' (7%) (California Fig Advisory Board 1988).
Currently, California ranks third in world fig production after Turkey and Greece, and ahead of Spain and Portugal. The state produces 100% of domestic fig production and 65% of the figs consumed in the country.
In 1987 it produced a total of 15,000 t of figs with a total value of $16 million. Of the 26 noncitrus fruit crops produced in California, figs rank 22nd in value and 18th in bearing area (Moyer 1989). The California fig industry has formed a mandatory California State Dried Fig Marketing Order for the purposes of grade and quality standard enforcement, market development, and production research support. The industry also voluntarily supports the California Fig Advisory Board and the California Fig Institute-organizations formed to administer product and market development, and production research, A. Taxonomy
The mulberry family, Moraceae, to which figs belong contains 60 genera and possibly more than 2,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. Common edible figs and their pollinating counterpart, caprifigs, are members of the subgenus Eusyce within Ficus carica-a species characterized by only unisexual axillary flowers and by gynodioecism. It is the only member of its genus cultivated for its fruit.
Several allied members of this subgenus closely resemble true Ficus species, and members intermediate in form between true Ficus and these allied species suggest hybridization among them. This could explain some of the difficulties among botanists with species delineation and characterization of Ficus spp. numerous studies exist on the classification of Ficus (Condit 1955, 1969; Condit and Enderud 1956), but there are great disagreements.The estimated number of species in the genus Ficus range from 600 (Engler 1889; Lyon 1922, 1929; Ridley 1922, 1930) to 800 (Verdoorn 1938) to 900 (Corner 1933, 1960ab, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1967) to 1,000 (Condit 1969) to 1,500 (Sata 1944) to 1,600 (Krause 1953) to 2,000 (Merrill 1943). With such a large number of fig species, and the obvious disagreement about classification within the genus, it would be expected that, without fruit present, common fig trees would be hard to distinguish from other Ficus app. However, its deciduous character and twig and leaf characteristics make the common fig readily identifiable when using the keys devised by Condit (1941, 1969). Some useful information about dried fig More about figs
Fig trees are of the genus Ficus, in the mulberry family. The rubber plant, a popular house plant, the Bo tree, and the Banyan tree are also species of Ficus.The fig was used by the ancient Egyptians as long as 6,000 years ago. They were a favorite of Cleopatra. They also grew in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. A handful of 11,400 year old dried figs have whetted the appetites of anthropologists. The figs, found in the abandoned village of Gilgal 1 in the Lower Jordan Valley in Israel, appear to be the first domesticated plants. The figs came from an unusual variety of tree whose fruit grows sweet and soft - but happens to be sterile. Thus the people of Gilgal must have learned to cultivate new trees by planting shoots.Smithsonian.
Figs are the sweetest of all fruits, with 55% sugar content. The flower of the fig is inside the fruit, so there are no blossoms on fig trees. Sort of like an inside out strawberry.
The fig, one of mankind’s oldest fruits, is only now receiving its due attention in homes across the United States. Although considered a fruit, the fig is actually a flower inverted into it.They are the only fruit to ripen on the tree. The fig fruit spread too many of the Mediterranean countries. Description
The fig occupies a high position among fruits. Soft, sweet and puply, this delicious fruit promotes health. It is a pear¬-shaped hollow fruit, with sugary pulp and a large number of small seeds of golden color sticking to the wall of the cavity. It is variable in size and color. The ripe fresh fruit is juicy, wholesome and delicious. However, being highly perishable, it is sold in the world markets in its dry form.Origin and Distribution
The fig is a native of Asia Minor and spread early to the Mediterranean region. It is a plant of extremely ancient cultivation and was grown in Egypt around 4,000 BC. It has been used as a principal food in the Mediterranean countries for thousands of years. Food Value An analysis of the fresh fig shows it consists good amount of moisture and little protein, fat and carbohydrate. The dry fig has a high nutritive value. Its most important food element is sugar which forms 51 to 74 per cent of the whole fruit.
It can be taken in various ways; either by itself or in combination with other foodstuffs enriches their food value. When taken with white flour, it removes much of its constipating effect. It combines very well with milk. Figs are often used for preparing cakes and jams. They are also made into pudding.


Food Value Minerals and Vitamins
Moisture 88.1% Calcium 35 mg
Protein 1.3% Phosphorus 22 mg
Fat 0.2% Iron 0.6 mg
Carbohydrates 7.6% Vitamin A 80 IU
Fibre 2.2% Vitamin C 2 mg

Small amounts of Vitamin B Complex
Minerals 0.6%
100%
Calorific Value - 80
*Values per 100 gms edible portion
Fig* (Dry)
Food Value Minerals and Vitamins
Moisture 23.0% Calcium 126 mg
Protein 4.3% Phosphorus 77 mg
Fat 1.3% Iron 3 mg
Carbohydrates 63.4% Vitamin A Small amounts of Vitamin B Complex 80 IU
Fibre 5.6%
Minerals 2.4%
100%
Calorific Value - 274
*Values per 100 g. edible portion

Natural Benefits and Curative Properties
Many medicinal virtues have been ascribed to the fig. It is considered a restorative food which helps in quick recovery after prolonged illness. It removes physical and mental exertion and endows the body with renewed vigour and strength. It is an excellent tonic for the weak people who suffer cracks in lips, tongue and mouth. Constipation
Taken either fresh or dried, the fig is regarded as a dependable laxative on account of its large cellulose content and its tough skin. The tiny seeds in the fruit possess the property of stimulating peristaltic or wave like movements of intestines which facilitates easy evacuation of faeces and keeps the alimentary canal clean.
Piles Owing to its laxative property, the fig is an excellent remedy for piles. Two or three dried figs should be soaked in cold water in a glass of enamelware in the night after cleaning them thoroughly with hot water.
They should be taken next morning. Figs should be taken similarly in the evening. This will remove straining at stools and thus prevent the protrusion of the anus. The piles will be cured with regular use of figs in this manner for three or four weeks. Asthma
Figs are considered beneficial in the treatment of asthma. Phlegmatic cases of cough and asthma are treated with success by their use. It gives comfort to the patient by draining of the phlegm. Corns For corns of long duration, the milky juice of green figs helps to soften them. The milk has a mild necrotic action. Precautions
Figs should be washed thoroughly before use. The skin of the dry fruit being tough, the soaked fig is easy to digest. It is, however essential to take the water along with the fruit as much of the nutrients come out into the water.Fig wasp
Blastophaga spines
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Chalcidoidea
Family: Agenda

Subfamilies
• Agaoninae
• Epichrysomallinae
• Otitesellinae
• Sycoecinae
• Sycophaginae
• Sycoryctinae
Fig wasps are wasps of the family Agenda which pollinate figs or are otherwise associated with figs.
The family as presently defined is polyphyletic, including several unrelated lineages whose similarities are based upon their shared association with figs; efforts are underway to resolve the matter, and remove a number of constituent groups to other families, particularly the Pteromalidae and Torymidae. Thus, the number of genera in the family is in flux. Probably only the Agaoninae should be regarded as belonging to the Agenda, whilst the Sycoecinae, Otitesellinae and Sycoryctinae should be included in the Pteromalidae. Placement of the Sycophaginae and Epichrysomallinae remains uncertain.
Among the Agaonidae, the female is a normal insect, while the males are mostly wingless. The males' only tasks are to mate with the females while still within the fig syconium and to chew a hole for the females to escape from the fig interior. This is the reverse of Strepsiptera and the bagworm, where the male is a normal insect and the female never leaves the host.Most figs have three kinds of flowers: male, short female, and long female. Female fig wasps can reach the ovaries of short female flowers with their ovipositors, but not long female flowers.Thus the short flowers grow wasps, whereas the long flowers become seeds. In figs of this sort, the crunchy bits in the fruit contain both seeds and wasps. However, there are several commercial and ornamental varieties of fig that are self-fertile and do not require pollination; these varieties are not visited by fig wasps.
Pollinating fig wasps (Agaoninae) are specific to specific figs. The common fig Ficus carioca is pollinated by Blastophaga psenes.Figs are thought to be originally from small Asia and are one of the first fruits cultivated ever.
It is said that humans could live on Figs alone as a source of food -- such is the goodness and nutrition in the fruit!Figs are a rich source of calcium, iron, magnesium, Vitamin B6, and potassium. Figs are low in fat and high in fiber. They provide more fiber than any other common fruit or vegetable. Figs have many health benefits. Fresh and dry figs are high in pectin, a soluble fiber that can reduce blood cholesterol. The fruit is also believed to have a laxative effect and can aid those who suffer from chronic constipation.List below are some common problems and illnesses and how they can be avoided by the use of figs: Insomnia Figs contain a nutrient called tryptophan. This promotes good sleep and helps the brain use glucose properly, encouraging and stimulating good circulation.Memory loss Figs contain a lot of natural sugar - up to 60%. Sugar stimulate the brain so we can think faster and recall information more quickly. So that you can think more clear and faster. Figs are the ultimate brain fuel!Fatigue Fresh Figs contain up to 80% of water, as well as being one of the fruits with the highest levels of natural sugars. So they are a brilliant source of energy and stimulant for the brain. Making you more alert, responsive, fresh, as well as de-toxing the self.Skin Due to the Fig's high water content, they are ideal for improving the skin. The skin requires a good level of water. This will clear the skin, act as a cleanser, improve acne, oil, and general well-being.Constipation Figs are a natural laxative. So they can aid those suffering from constipation. They have a high level of fibre.The heart
Due to the Fig's high level of natural sugars, they are an excellent way to replace the bleached (white) sugars with a more healthy alternative. They contain a natural fructose and glucose sugar.A high fibre diet is one of the best ways to improve cholesterol levels, and as a result aid oneself against heart related diseases insha'Allah.The nutrient 'tryptophan' contained in Figs encourages good circulation, allowing blood to flow more easily around the body.
Figs contain the ingredient Pectin (and soluble Fiber) which is known for its cholesterol lowering effects. Thus, Figs are beneficial for those of Old age, those suffering from High Blood-pressure, Diabetes, heart-disease, hyper-tension, and other such related illnesses.Calcium Studies show that 80% of Americans don't consume adequate amounts of calcium daily. The majority of the calcium consumed by those in the US comes from dairy products. However, Figs are another source where much calcium could be obtained.This is also beneficial for those who are lactose intolerant. Five figs provide about 250 mg of the daily recommended level of calcium.Blood pressure Figs are beneficial for those with heart-related diseases. Lowering cholesterol, they are advantageous for those with high blood pressure.Figs are a particularly good source of Potassium.Potassium is a mineral crucial to the control of blood pressure. People who eat potassium-rich foods tend to have lower blood pressure and, subsequently, have less risk of related conditions such as strokes.
Stress Physical stress results from having high levels of work to do, illnesses, not eating properly, lack of sleep. Emotional stress is triggered from deny things, such as family woes, work/school troubles and so on.
Figs are extremely nutritious, and over-all an ideal fruit to overcome stresses and anxieties.Figs are high in calories – about 50 calories per fig – but are highly nutritious snacks.
Anemia Figs contain Iron which enriches the blood, and helps to produce it. Thus, they are ideal for women, girls and those suffering from Anemia (lack of Iron). Digestion Five figs provide more than 20 percent of the daily recommended allowance of fiber. Hence, they are excellent in aiding digestion and improving the condition of the stomach and bowels. Bones Figs, with their high level of calcium are ideal for young growing children and for the development of bones. They are also invaluable for those suffering from Osteoporosis and brittle bones.
Weight control Three figs, fresh or dried, contain about five grams of fiber. The soluble fiber contained in Figs can help people cut down on snacking because it causes nutrients to be absorbed more slowly, making people feel more satisfied after a meal.
Site and Soil Requirements For Figs
Plentiful sunlight is a key to maximizing fruit production. Choose an area that is in the sun most or all of the day. Otherwise, expect reduced performance from the trees. Early morning sun is particularly important to dry dew from the plants; thereby, reducing the incidence of diseases.
Good drainage is a more important consideration than soil fertility. Avoid soils and sites where water stands for more than 24 hours after a rain. In areas of poor drainage, roots receive insufficient oxygen and will die, resulting in stunted growth and eventual death of the tree. Fig Types
Capri fig The Capri fig produces a small non-edible fruit; however, the flowers inside the Capri fig fruit produce pollen. This pollen is essential for fertilizing fruit of the Smyrna and San Pedro types. The pollen is transported from the Capri fig to the pollen-sterile types by a Blastophaga wasp. Commercial growers hang baskets of Blastophaga-infested Caprifigs so that the wasps can effectively fertilize the fruit.
Smyrna The Soya fig varieties produce large edible fruit with true seeds. The Blastophaga wasp and Caprifigs are required for normal fruit development. If this fertilization process does not occur, fruit will not develop properly and will fall from the tree. Smyrna-type figs are commonly sold as dried figs. San Pedro These figs can bear two crops of fruit in one season--one crop on last season's growth and a second crop on current growth. The first crop, called the Breba crop, is parthenocarpic and does not require pollination.Fruit of the second crop is the Smyrna type and requires pollination from the Caprifig. Breba produces early in the spring on last season's wood. However, the second crop of the Smyrna type may fail to set because of lack of pollination from Blastophaga and Caprifig. This second crop fruit drop discourages homeowners.
Common Fig These figs develop parthenocarpically without pollination and are by far the most prevalent fig grown in Texas. The fruit does not have true seeds and is primarily produced on current season wood. Varieties recommended for Texas are of common fig type.Site and Soil Requirements For Figs
Plentiful sunlight is a key to maximizing fruit production. Choose an area that is in the sun most or all of the day. Otherwise, expect reduced performance from the trees. Early morning sun is particularly important to dry dew from the plants; thereby, reducing the incidence of diseases.
Good drainage is a more important consideration than soil fertility. Avoid soils and sites where water stands for more than 24 hours after a rain. In areas of poor drainage, roots receive insufficient oxygen and will die, resulting in stunted growth and eventual death of the tree. Figs Varieties Celeste The Celeste fig is small, brown to purple in color and adapted to all areas of Texas. Celeste is the most cold hardy of all Texas fig varieties. The tree is large, vigorous and very productive. Celeste usually does not have a Breba crop; the main crop ripens in mid-June before the main crop of other Texas fig varieties. Celeste fruit has a tightly closed eye which inhibits the entry of the dried fruit beetle. The fruit does not have excessive souring on the tree. Celeste has excellent fresh dessert quality with a rich sweet flavor. It is an excellent processing fig, either frozen or processed as fig preserves. Do not prune mature Celeste trees heavily because this can reduce the crop.
Texas Overbearing Texas Overbearing is a medium-sized fig adapted to central and east Texas. It is the most common variety in central Texas. The tree is vigorous, very large and productive. The early crop ripens in May; the main crop ripens in late June and continues to ripen into August. The fruit has a short, plump stem and moderately closed eye which reduces fruit souring on the tree. The fruit is nearly seedless and has a mild sweet flavor. Early crop fruit is very large, sometimes 2 inches in diameter. Alma Alma is a new common fig variety released by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in 1974. Alma resulted from a cross between the female Allison and the male Hamma Caprifig. It is a late season variety with very high fruit quality. The fruit skin is rather unattractive; however, the flesh has an excellent rich, sweet flavor. The tree is moderately vigorous, very productive and comes into production at a very early age. The eye of Alma fruit is sealed with a drop of thick resin that inhibits the entry of the dried fruit beetle, thus reducing on-the-tree fruit souring. Alma is very frost sensitive, especially as a young tree and should be grown no more than 200 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. Brown Turkey
This variety has the longest ripening season of the recommended varieties. Although it is not quite as cold hardy as Celeste, it will, if injured by a freeze, produce fair-to-good crops on sucker wood the next season. This is an advantage in areas troubled by late spring frosts. The fruit is medium to large, with a reddish-brown skin tinged with purple. The pulp is reddish-pink and of good quality. It is subject to cracking in wet weather and has a larger eye than Celeste and hence will sour more quickly. The fruit is excellent for making home preserves.
Magnolia This variety is the most popular commercial canning fig in the South. It is a weak growing tree with fruit that sours and splits badly during wet weather. Splitting and souring can be reduced, however, if its fruit is picked just before full maturity and used as preserves. This variety also produces fair-to-good crop on sucker wood the season after freeze injury. The fruit is medium to large with brown skin and light amber pulp. It is prominently swollen at the fruit base with a very open eye. Fruiting is spread over a long period if the tree is pruned heavily. Figs will appear on both current and last year's wood, although its fruit crop is usually small. This variety is widely used as a dooryard variety in Texas but because of its splitting and souring problems, it is no longer recommended. Keota
This variety is the commercial fig of California. Varietals trials show it also does well in Texas, particularly in south Texas. The fruit becomes rubbery in drier and hotter areas.
The eye is open but it is characteristically filled with a honey-like substance which prevents entry of insects and subsequent souring. Fruiting characteristics are similar to those of Magnolia and Overbearing.
It will produce on sucker wood the year after cold injury. The fruit is yellow to green with seeds and amber pulp. The fruit is excellent canned or preserved. Do not plant this variety in drier areas of Texas.Training Where winters are mild, train fig trees to a single trunk, open vase-type tree. The stool multi-trunk system is by far the most frequently used in Texas.The stool system is common where freezes occasionally kill the upper part of the tree. Illustrate the two types of training system. Pruning Normally figs are pruned very little. Do not prune mature Celeste and Alma trees because this reduces the crop size. Texas Everbearing produces a fair crop following heavy winter pruning.
To stimulate new growth, thin out older trees which grow very little each year. Thinning also increases fruit size. Prune the trees enough to stimulate approximately 1 foot of growth each year. Remove all weak, diseased or dead limbs each dormant season. Irrigation
Give special attention to soil moisture management in fig culture. Most fig tree roots are close to the soil surface and can easily dry out. Figs are very susceptible to soil-borne nematodes that feed on small roots and reduce water movement into the tree.
For these reasons, apply water to the trees as drought develops. Slight leaf wilting in the afternoon is a good indication of water stress. Mulching with straw or grass clippings helps maintain uniform soil moisture and reduces weed competition for available soil water. Water stress frequently causes premature fruit drop of Texas fig varieties which do not have true seeds. This problem is very common in hot dry areas when the fig tree is grown in shallow soil and roots are nematode infested. Do not overeater in areas of poor drainage. This forces oxygen out of the soil and the tree is injured or killed. Good water management, including regular irrigation and mulching, helps maintain tree health and vigor and reduces fruit drop. Factors influencing a fig tree's susceptibility to cold injury are related to the tree's entrance into dormancy. A mature tree which has lost all of its leaves and becomes totally dormant can withstand much cooler temperatures than a rapidly growing tree at the time of first frost.
Reduce irrigations in the fall of the year to reduce growth and encourage the onset of dormancy. A fully dormant fig tree can withstand temperatures as low as 10 degrees F. In north Texas, plant figs along the south side of a building to help reduce freeze damage.
Place straw mulches over the base of the tree to insulate warm soil temperature during freezes and prevent killing the crown of the tree.
When trees or limbs freeze, give the tree ample time to grow before removing the frozen limbs. Then, new wood can be produced. Harvesting For top quality, allow figs to ripen fully on the tree. But they must be picked as they ripen; otherwise, spoilage from the dried fruit beetle can occur. On-the-tree spoilage or souring is caused by microorganisms in the fully ripe fruit.
These organisms are usually carried into the open eye of the fig by insects, particularly the dried fruit beetle. Daily harvests and the removal of overripe, spoiled figs can greatly reduce spoilage problems. This is particularly true of varieties which have an open eye. Use gloves and long sleeves when harvesting figs to prevent skin irritation from the fig latex.
Disease Control Figs in Texas are affected by three major disease problems. The most important is the root knot nematode, which is not readily noticed by the average person.
Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne sp., are microscopic, soil inhabiting worms which attack the plant's root system. They attack and feed on roots, causing them to swell or gall; thus, interfering with normal uptake of water and nutrients. These galls are easily seen if root samples are observed.
Nematode problems may go unnoticed for several years. As a heavy population builds up, the tree loses vigor and declines gradually. Nematodes contribute to premature fruit drop. To prevent rootknot nematodes in figs, obtain nematode-free plants and plant in nematode-free soil. Fig rust is an important fungus disease that attacks the leaves of figs. It is caused by Physopella foci. Fig rust first appears as small, yellowish-orange spots on the leaves. These enlarge slightly and may become very numerous as the season progresses. Rust causes complete defoliation of many trees in the state each year, resulting in ragged-looking trees. In addition, trees defoliated early in the season may initiate new growth which is often susceptible to cold injury. Defoliation usually does not occur early enough to cause fruit loss except in late ripening varieties.
Rust is controlled with neutral copper sprays. One or two applications made in May or early June usually keep trees in fairly good condition until after fruit ripens. In very wet seasons one or two additional applications may be necessary. A good index for spraying is when the first leaves on the tree have reached full size. The second spray should follow in 3 to 4 weeks. It is extremely important to get good leaf coverage with the spray material.
Fig souring is a constant problem in Texas. The first step in preventing losses attributed to souring is to grow recommended varieties, which have a closed eye, a drooping fruit characteristic and fruit-splitting resistance.Controlling insects and using resistant varieties restrain most fruit souring problems most of the season. Late season infestations may be impracticable to control.Phymatotricham omnivore is the number one killer of figs in Texas. This organism is a fungus primarily associated with alkaline soils. This organism kills the roots, causing the plant to wither and die in a short time. There is no resistant variety or rootstock. The only control, which is impracticable at best, is to completely recondition the soil before planting. This means completely altering the soil pH in the area with a soil acidifier. This type of control is not permanent, however.
Several other minor diseases associated with figs can be found but are a problem only in more humid areas.
Mini (moist) figs After processing and selecting of the fruits, the dried figs are washing and processed bringing their moisture content up from 10-12% as delivered, to moisture content as high as 20-23%, which makes our figs moist and delicious.After washing, they are going for packaging in different sizes (100,200,250,400,450gr) and 10 Kg carton in bulk or according to the customer's orders. Farzin Dried Fruit Company also produces Figs paste in 10Kg carton or according to customer's request.
NAME OF PRODUCT SIZE (gr) QUANTITY PER CARTON CARTON DIMENSIONS (cm)
L x W x H
1. Mini Figs in Cellophane 200 30 - 50 58 x 24x 16
2. Mini Figs in Cellophane 250 40 58 x 24x 16
3. Mini Figs in Cellophane 400 30 64 x 28 x 14
4. Mini Figs in Cellophane 450 30 42 x 28 x 13
5. Mini Figs in box wrapped in Cellophane 400 27 42 x 28 x 12
6. Mini Figs in round Shrink Pack 200 48 49 x 30 x 12
7. Mini Figs 10 k. 1 42 x 28 x 13
8. Figs Paste 10 k. 1 42 x 28 x 13

Analysis of mini figs in 100gr with approx is as follow:
Energy 274 Cal.
Water 20-23 g.
Fat 1.3 g.
Carbohydrates 69.1 g.
Protein 4.3 g.
Fiber 5.6 g.
Ash 2.3 g.
Cholesterol 0 g.
Vitamin A 80 Iu
Vitamin B1 0.10 mg
Vitamin B2 0.10 mg
Vitamin B3 0.7 mg
Vitamin B6 0.175 mg
Vitamin C 0.6 mg
Calcium 126 mg
Phospor 77 mg
Potassium 640 mg
Sodium 34 mg
Iron 3 mg
Magnesium 50 mg
Quality control
Farzin Dried Fruit Company with quality control staff and microbiological lab in its factory ensures that the highest possible quality standards are meet.
Iranian figs The soil and climate in city of Estahban near Shiraz center of Fars province are ideal for growing the best figs in the world.Figs orchards in Estahban cultivated by dry farming and their fruits are naturally sun dried.
Most of activity in the orchards of figs begins in May as the fruit appears on the tree and culminates in October when the first picking of dried figs started. Pollination Figs tree have no blossoms on their branches, the flowers are inside the fruit.These many tiny flowers produce the crunchy little seeds, which give figs their unique texture. Pollination of fruit is by a tiny wasp stinger less, that coming out from male figs and inters the "eye" at the bottom of the female figs, unwittingly pollinates it by brushing pollen onto the female flowers in order to have the fruit mature. It then exits the figs to pollinate other fruits.
Processing After the maturing and drying phases of figs that take place on the tree, the crop collected and transferred to the factory.
The fruit travels through two more sorts by sorting machine and workers carefully to remove blemished and undesirable fruit and also grading, selecting for different purpose.
Dried figs After processing and selecting the figs, they are graded in different sizes by All grade for dried figs are as follows:
GRADE 101 AA A B
Diameter/mm D>22 D>22 22>D>18 14 Piece/Kg 160-170 160-170 210-220 300-320
GRADE 101 AA A B
Diameter/mm D>22 D>22 22>D>18 14 Piece/Kg 160-170 160-170 210-220 300-320
Packing
10 Kg dried figs net in polyethylene bag in cartoon.
Grade Packing Container (FLC) Container Trukload
A 10Kg/carton 1900 cartons/20ft 2400 cartons/40ft 1900 cartons
B 10Kg/cartons 1900 cartons/20ft 2400 cartons/40ft 1900 cartons
Analysis of dried figs in 100gr with approx is as follows:

Energy
274 Cal.
Water 10-12 g.
Fat 1.3 g.
Carbohydrates 69.1 g.
Protein 4.3 g.
Fiber 5.6 g.
Ash 2.3 g.
Cholesterol 0 g.
Vitamin A 80 Iu
Vitamin B1 0.10 mg
Vitamin B2 0.10 mg
Vitamin B3 0.7 mg
Vitamin B6 0.175 mg
Vitamin C 0.6 mg
Calcium 126 mg
Phospor 77 mg
Potassium 640 mg
Sodium 34 mg
Iron 3 mg
Magnesium 50 mg

Iran Fig, pistachio, saffron
Filbert Fruit
Iranian filbert nut is 4 CM long and enclosed in a papery covering referred to as an involucre.
Filbert Without Involucre: Iranian filberts, also called hazelnuts, are rounded and slightly pointed at one end. They are small, usually about a 3 CM long and resemble an acorn with its top removed. Filberts have a thin but strong shell that is shiny and golden brown with light vertical stripes.
Filbert Without Shell: The filbert nut has a thin, medium to dark brown papery covering which peels away to reveal the white flesh beneath.
Which City or Province Grow: North of Iran.
Harvest Season: Summer
Filbert Shrub: Filberts grow on deciduous, multi-stemmed shrubs that are slightly wider than tall. The shrubs reach a height of 0.8 to 1.5 meter
Filbert Twig: Filbert leaves are arranged alternately along the stem.
Filbert Leaves: The leaves of filbert shrubs are dark green, simple, and 7.5 to 15 CM in length.
Iran Filbert Fruit, pistachio, saffron
Grape
Iranian grapes grow in elongated clusters on a vine.
Which City or Province Grow: Oroumeiyeh + Ghazvin + Mashhad.
Harvest Season: Summer + winter.
Each fruit is oval-shaped with red, green, or purple skin. The smooth skin often has a powdery, gray film on the surface.
Grape Vine: Grape vines grow rapidly and need to be pruned every year to control the size of the vine and to maximize yield.
Grape vines have special support structures called tendrils that grasp onto the support wires provided by the grower.
Grape leaves: grape leaves are broad, have 3 lobes, and coarsely toothed margins. The major veins of the leaf are palmate, which means the veins radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.
Iran Grape, pistachio, saffron
Grapefruit
Iranian grapefruit skin is yellow or pinkish yellow in color. The fruit is a modified berry, known botanically as a hesperidium.
Grapefruit flesh color varies from pink to almost red. They can be confused with oranges, but grapefruit are often larger and more yellow in color.
Grapefruit Tree: Grapefruit trees can reach 2.5 to 3 meter tall.
Grapefruit Leaves: Grapefruit leaves are
light green when they are young and darken as they mature. They are 7.5 to 12.5 CM long evergreen leaves that broaden at the base of the leaf and narrow at the apex (tip). A unique characteristic of many citrus leaves are winged petioles that overlap the leaf base. Grapefruit leaves have large winged petioles compared to many other citrus species
Iran Grapefruit, pistachio, saffron
Orange
Iranian Oranges are oval to sphere-shaped fruits with leathery, porous skin. Their color ranges from orange to red-orange. Oranges may be confused with other citrus fruits, such as grapefruits and tangerines. However, grapefruits are usually much larger and more yellow than oranges, and tangerines have a more flattened sphere shape than oranges.
Which City or Province Grow: North of Iran + Jiroft + Bandar Abbas.
Harvest Season: Winter.
Oranges are green before they ripen.
Orange Tree: Oranges grow on evergreen trees that reach a mature size of 3 meter high and 2 meter wide. The branches of many orange trees are thorny.
Orange Leaves: Orange leaves are shiny and leathery and 7.5 to 10metere long.
They have narrow wings on their petioles.
Orange Flower: Orange flowers are white in color and very fragrant. The flower blooms in the spring, but the fruit is not ready until the following fall or winter. In fact, the new flowers are blooming in the spring while the previous year's oranges are still on the tree. The orange blossom is the Caspian sea flower of Mazendaran province.
Iran Orange, pistachio, saffron
Peach
Iranian peaches can be red, pink, yellow, or a combination of those colors. On one side of the fruit is a distinctive vertical indentation. Peaches and nectarines look very similar, but they can be told apart by their skin texture: peaches are fuzzy and dull, while nectarines are smooth and shiny.
Which City or Province Grow: Caspian sea cost north of Iran + east & west Azerbaijan (north west) + Mashhad.
Harvest Season: Summer.
Peach Tree: The peach tree is a small stature, short-lived tree, only reaching about 2meter in height and living for about 12 years. Most varieties are self-pollinating, therefore only one tree will need to be planted to obtain fruit.
Peach Leaves: Peach tree leaves are simple, long (7.5 to 15 CM), fold distinctly inward, and curve downward. The leaves and buds of peach trees look similar to nectarines.
The margins of the leaf are finely toothed
Iran Peach, pistachio, saffron
Pear
Iranian pears have a distinctive bell shape fruit. Some pears have knobby lobes at the base of the fruit while others are smooth at the base. The skin of the fruit ranges in color from green, yellow, red, brown, pink, or a combination of these colors. Pear flesh is white and juicy and grainy in texture. Bartlett pears are shown in this picture.
Which City or Province Grow: Caspian sea cost north of Iran + east & west Azerbaijan (north west) + Isfahan.

Harvest Season: Summer.
Pear Tree: Iranian pear trees can grow to reach a height of 4.5 meter. They are longer lived than apple trees and generally have less disease problems; although pear trees bloom earlier in the spring and are more susceptible to frost damage.
Pear Leaves: Pear leaves are simple, finely toothed, and glossy green in color. Their shape is oval to oblong with a short pointed tip.
Iran Pear, pistachio, saffron
Persimmon
Iranian persimmon fruits are nearly round, shiny, and tough-skinned. They are about 2.5 CM in diameter, and the color when ripe ranges from a pale orange to a slight red color. They ripen from Oct to Nov, usually after the tree has lost its leaves.
Which City or Province Grow: Tehran.
Harvest Season: Fall.
The green fruit in this picture is immature. Notice the clove-like structure at the top of the fruit. This can help distinguish persimmons from apricots or yellow tomatoes.
he oriental persimmon is the persimmon most often found in the grocery store. It is larger than the Iranian persimmon (about 5CM in diameter) and can vary in shape from round and flat to oblong and cone-shaped.
Persimmon Tree: The Iranian persimmon tree (shown here) grows to 3.5 to 6 meter tall and 2 to 3.5 meter wide. The oriental persimmon tree is not hardy in zone 5 and is a smaller stature tree.
Iran Persimmon, pistachio, saffron
Plum
Iranian Plums have a plump, round shape with a depression at the top where the stem attached.
Which City or Province Grow: Tehran + Oroumeyeh + Tabriz + Mashhad.
Harvest Season: Summer.
Plum skin is very smooth and shiny, and can be red, purple, or yellow.
Plums may be confused with nectarines or apples, but plums are usually smaller than both and lack orange coloring. Dried plums are called prunes.
Plum Tree: Plum trees can grow 6 to 12 feet in height, depending on the cultivar.
Plum Leaves: Plum leaves are simple, oval to oblong and come to a point at the end. The leaf margins are scalloped.
Iran Plum, pistachio, saffron
Pomegranate
Iranian Pomegranates are 7.5 to 10 CM in diameter and round to oblong in shape. The skin is leathery in texture and orange to orange-red in color. The edible portion of the fruit is the juicy red flesh and there are many seeds inside the fruit making it difficult to eat.
Which City or Province Grow: Yazd + Saveh + Esfahan + Fars.
Harvest Season: Fall + winter.
Pomegranate Shrub: Pomegranates grow on rounded, deciduous shrubs or small trees that grow to an average of 1.2 to 1.6 meter in height, although dwarf varieties do exist. The branches are often spiny and tend to sucker from the base.
Pomegranate Leaves: The pomegranate has narrow, glossy, leathery leaves
Iran Pomegranate, pistachio, saffron
Strawberry
Iranian Strawberry fruits are aggregates made up of several small fruits, each with one seed called an achene. The flesh of the strawberry is actually an enlarged receptacle, non-reproductive material.
Which City or Province Grow: Kordestan.
Harvest Season: Summer.
Strawberry Plant: Strawberries grow close to the ground and spread by sending out runners. Berries are borne in clusters underneath the leaves.
Strawberry Leaves: Strawberry leaves have three parts and are light green with coarsely toothed margins.
Strawberry Flower: The strawberry flower is about an inch in diameter with five white petals and a yellow center.
After the strawberry flower is pollinated, it becomes the aggregate fruit
Iran Strawberry, pistachio, saffron
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